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Law

Law
"Legal concept" redirects here. Lady Justice, a symbol of justice. She is depicted as a goddess equipped with three items: a sword, symbolising the coercive power of a court; scales, representing an objective standard by which competing claims are weighed; and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial and meted out objectively, without fear or favor and regardless of money, wealth, power or identity.[1] Law is a term which does not have a universally accepted definition,[2] but one definition is that law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour.[3] Laws can be made by legislatures through legislation (resulting in statutes), the executive through decrees and regulations, or judges through binding precedents (normally in common law jurisdictions). To implement and enforce the law and provide services to the public by public servants, a government's bureaucracy, military, and police are vital. Definition[edit] Related:  Social SciencesCriminology

Health Care Health care (or healthcare) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in allied health, dentistry, midwifery-obstetrics , medicine, nursing, optometry, pharmacy and other care providers. It refers to the work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care varies across countries, groups, and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as the health policies in place. Health care can contribute to a significant part of a country's economy. Health care is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world. Health care delivery[edit] Primary care may be provided in community health centres. Primary care[edit] Secondary care[edit] Tertiary care[edit] Quaternary care[edit]

History Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.[1] History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past, particularly how it relates to humans.[3][4] It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. Events occurring prior to written record are considered prehistory. History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them.[5][6] Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.[5][7][8][9] Etymology Description Historiography

Deviance (sociology) Norms are rules and expectations by which members of society are conventionally guided. Deviance is an absence of conformity to these norms. Social norms differ from culture to culture. For example, a deviant act can be committed in one society that breaks a social norm there, but may be normal for another society. Viewing deviance as a violation of social norms, sociologists have characterized it as "any thought, feeling, or action that members of a social group judge to be a violation of their values or rules "or group" conduct, that violates definitions of appropriate and inappropriate conduct shared by the members of a social system. The departure of certain types of behavior from the norms of a particular society at a particular time and "violation of certain types of group norms where behavior is in a disapproved direction and of sufficient degree to exceed the tolerance limit of the community. "Deviance affirms cultural values and norms. Robert K. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Domestic violence Domestic violence, also known as domestic abuse, spousal abuse, battering, family violence, dating abuse, and intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pattern of behavior which involves the abuse by one partner against another in an intimate relationship such as marriage, cohabitation, dating or within the family. It is experienced by women and men in heterosexual and same-sex relationships. Forms of domestic violence include physical, emotional, verbal, economic and sexual abuse, which can range from subtle, coercive forms of abuse to violent physical abuse that results in disfigurement or death. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that globally 38% of murders against women are committed by an intimate partner. Domestic violence often occurs because the perpetrator believes that abuse is acceptable. Often there is a cycle of abuse during which tensions rise and an act of violence is committed, followed by a period of reconciliation and calm. Definitions[edit] Abuse[edit] Forms[edit]

Cilician Gates The Cilician Gates or Gülek Pass is a pass through the Taurus Mountains connecting the low plains of Cilicia to the Anatolian Plateau, by way of the narrow gorge of the Gökoluk River. Its highest elevation is about 1000m.[2] The Cilician Gates have been a major commercial and military artery for millennia.[3] In the early 20th century, a narrow-gauge railway was built through them, and today, the Tarsus-Ankara Highway (E90, O-21) passes through them. The southern end of the Cilician gates is about 44 km north of Tarsus and the northern end leads to Cappadocia. History[edit] Yumuktepe (modern Mersin), which guards the Adana side of the gateway, with 23 layers of occupation, is at 4,500 BCE, one of the oldest fortified settlements in the world. When German engineers were working on the railroad link between Haydarpaşa Terminal in Istanbul, at the shore of the Sea of Marmara and Baghdad, they were unable to follow the steep-pitched, narrow, and tightly winding ancient track through the pass.

API In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) specifies how some software components should interact with each other. Detailed explanation[edit] API in procedural languages[edit] In most procedural languages, an API specifies a set of functions or routines that accomplish a specific task or are allowed to interact with a specific software component. This specification is presented in a human readable format in paper books, or in electronic formats like ebooks or as man pages. For example, the math API on Unix systems is a specification on how to use the mathematical functions included in the math library. The Unix command man 3 sqrt presents the signature of the function sqrt in the form: SYNOPSIS #include <math.h> double sqrt(double X); float sqrtf(float X); DESCRIPTION sqrt computes the positive square root of the argument. ... $ perldoc -f sqrt sqrt EXPR sqrt #Return the square root of EXPR. API in object-oriented languages[edit] API libraries and frameworks[edit]

Linguistics In the early 20th century Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics. According to him, parole is the specific utterance of speech, whereas langue refers to an abstract phenomenon that theoretically defines the principles and system of rules that govern a language.[9] This distinction resembles the one made by Noam Chomsky between competence and performance, where competence is individual's ideal knowledge of a language, while performance is the specific way in which it is used.[10] In classical Indian philosophy of language, the Sanskrit philosophers like Patanjali and Katyayana had distinguished between sphota (light) and dhvani (sound). In the late 20th century, French philosopher Jacques Derrida distinguished between the notions of speech and writing.[11] Nomenclature[edit] Variation and Universality[edit] Lexicon[edit] The lexicon is a catalogue of words and terms that are stored in a speaker's mind.

Penology Penology (from the Latin poena, "punishment" and the Greek suffix -logia, "study of") is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice[1][2][3] of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal activities, and satisfy public opinion via an appropriate treatment regime for persons convicted of criminal offences. The Oxford English Dictionary defines penology as "the study of the punishment of crime and prison management", and in this sense it is equivalent with corrections.[4] Penology is concerned with the effectiveness of those social processes devised and adopted for the prevention of crime, via the repression or inhibition of criminal intent via the fear of punishment. History[edit] Penologists have consequently evolved occupational and psychological education programs for offenders detained in prison, and a range of community service and probation orders which entail guidance and aftercare of the offender within the community. See also[edit]

Public-order crime For example, in cases where a criminal act subverts or undermines the commercial effectiveness of normative business practices, the negative consequences extend beyond those at whom the specific immediate harm was intended. Similarly, in environmental law, there are offences that do not have a direct, immediate and tangible victim, so crimes go largely unreported and unprosecuted because of the problem of lack of victim awareness. In short, there are no clear, unequivocal definitions of "consensus", "harm", "injury", "offender", and "victim". Such judgments are always informed by contestable, epistemological, moral, and political assumptions (de Haan, 1990: 154). England and Wales[edit] See the following: Crimes without apparent victims[edit] In public order crimes, there are many instances of criminality where a person is accused because he/she has made a personal choice to engage in an activity of which society disapproves, e.g., private recreational drug use. Why criminalize? Drugs[edit]

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Scale model of a reconstruction of the Mausoleum, one of many widely differing versions, at Miniatürk, Istanbul This lion is among the few free-standing sculptures from the Mausoleum at the British Museum. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus[1] (Greek: Μαυσωλείο της Αλικαρνασσού, modern Turkish: Halikarnas Mozolesi) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and Artemisia II of Caria, who was both his wife and his sister. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene.[2][3] The word mausoleum has now come to be used generically for an above-ground tomb. Conquest[edit] Halicarnassus[edit] Artemisia and Mausolus spent huge amounts of tax money to embellish the city. In 353 BC, Mausolus died, leaving Artemisia to rule alone. Artemisia lived for only two years after the death of her husband. Construction of the Mausoleum[edit] History[edit]

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