background preloader

Law

Law
"Legal concept" redirects here. Lady Justice, a symbol of justice. She is depicted as a goddess equipped with three items: a sword, symbolising the coercive power of a court; scales, representing an objective standard by which competing claims are weighed; and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial and meted out objectively, without fear or favor and regardless of money, wealth, power or identity.[1] Law is a term which does not have a universally accepted definition,[2] but one definition is that law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour.[3] Laws can be made by legislatures through legislation (resulting in statutes), the executive through decrees and regulations, or judges through binding precedents (normally in common law jurisdictions). To implement and enforce the law and provide services to the public by public servants, a government's bureaucracy, military, and police are vital. Definition[edit] Related:  Social Sciences

Health Care Health care (or healthcare) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in allied health, dentistry, midwifery-obstetrics , medicine, nursing, optometry, pharmacy and other care providers. It refers to the work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care varies across countries, groups, and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as the health policies in place. Health care can contribute to a significant part of a country's economy. Health care is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world. Health care delivery[edit] Primary care may be provided in community health centres. Primary care[edit] Secondary care[edit] Tertiary care[edit] Quaternary care[edit]

History Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.[1] History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past, particularly how it relates to humans.[3][4] It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. Events occurring prior to written record are considered prehistory. History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them.[5][6] Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.[5][7][8][9] Etymology Description Historiography

Domestic violence Domestic violence, also known as domestic abuse, spousal abuse, battering, family violence, dating abuse, and intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pattern of behavior which involves the abuse by one partner against another in an intimate relationship such as marriage, cohabitation, dating or within the family. It is experienced by women and men in heterosexual and same-sex relationships. Forms of domestic violence include physical, emotional, verbal, economic and sexual abuse, which can range from subtle, coercive forms of abuse to violent physical abuse that results in disfigurement or death. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that globally 38% of murders against women are committed by an intimate partner. Domestic violence often occurs because the perpetrator believes that abuse is acceptable. Often there is a cycle of abuse during which tensions rise and an act of violence is committed, followed by a period of reconciliation and calm. Definitions[edit] Abuse[edit] Forms[edit]

API In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) specifies how some software components should interact with each other. Detailed explanation[edit] API in procedural languages[edit] In most procedural languages, an API specifies a set of functions or routines that accomplish a specific task or are allowed to interact with a specific software component. This specification is presented in a human readable format in paper books, or in electronic formats like ebooks or as man pages. For example, the math API on Unix systems is a specification on how to use the mathematical functions included in the math library. The Unix command man 3 sqrt presents the signature of the function sqrt in the form: SYNOPSIS #include <math.h> double sqrt(double X); float sqrtf(float X); DESCRIPTION sqrt computes the positive square root of the argument. ... $ perldoc -f sqrt sqrt EXPR sqrt #Return the square root of EXPR. API in object-oriented languages[edit] API libraries and frameworks[edit]

Linguistics In the early 20th century Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics. According to him, parole is the specific utterance of speech, whereas langue refers to an abstract phenomenon that theoretically defines the principles and system of rules that govern a language.[9] This distinction resembles the one made by Noam Chomsky between competence and performance, where competence is individual's ideal knowledge of a language, while performance is the specific way in which it is used.[10] In classical Indian philosophy of language, the Sanskrit philosophers like Patanjali and Katyayana had distinguished between sphota (light) and dhvani (sound). In the late 20th century, French philosopher Jacques Derrida distinguished between the notions of speech and writing.[11] Nomenclature[edit] Variation and Universality[edit] Lexicon[edit] The lexicon is a catalogue of words and terms that are stored in a speaker's mind.

Public-order crime For example, in cases where a criminal act subverts or undermines the commercial effectiveness of normative business practices, the negative consequences extend beyond those at whom the specific immediate harm was intended. Similarly, in environmental law, there are offences that do not have a direct, immediate and tangible victim, so crimes go largely unreported and unprosecuted because of the problem of lack of victim awareness. In short, there are no clear, unequivocal definitions of "consensus", "harm", "injury", "offender", and "victim". Such judgments are always informed by contestable, epistemological, moral, and political assumptions (de Haan, 1990: 154). England and Wales[edit] See the following: Crimes without apparent victims[edit] In public order crimes, there are many instances of criminality where a person is accused because he/she has made a personal choice to engage in an activity of which society disapproves, e.g., private recreational drug use. Why criminalize? Drugs[edit]

Information retrieval Information retrieval is the activity of obtaining information resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources. Searches can be based on metadata or on full-text (or other content-based) indexing. Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called "information overload". Many universities and public libraries use IR systems to provide access to books, journals and other documents. Web search engines are the most visible IR applications. Overview[edit] An information retrieval process begins when a user enters a query into the system. An object is an entity that is represented by information in a database. Most IR systems compute a numeric score on how well each object in the database matches the query, and rank the objects according to this value. History[edit] Model types[edit] For effectively retrieving relevant documents by IR strategies, the documents are typically transformed into a suitable representation. Recall[edit]

Geography Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, lit. "earth description"[1]) is a field of science dedicated to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth.[2] A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC).[3] Four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analysis of the natural and the human phenomena (geography as the study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of the man-land relationship, and research in the Earth sciences.[4] Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities - not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Introduction Traditionally, geographers have been viewed the same way as cartographers and people who study place names and numbers. Branches Physical geography

Lens: Photographs From a Decade in Afghanistan “I am a photographer working for a newspaper, and to ignore this American war, or any other war that we are involved in, would be an unfulfilling way for me to work.” Tyler Hicks, a staff photographer at The New York Times, voices in a simple and understated way the reasons he keeps going back to Afghanistan after over 10 years of covering the war there. But his experiences in that time have been anything but simple or understated. As C.J. Read the whole post here. Apache Lucene!

Related: