Cells of the nervous system
Types of Neurons (Nerve Cells) The human body is made up of trillions of cells. Cells of the nervous system, called nerve cells or neurons, are specialized to carry "messages" through an electrochemical process. Neurons come in many different shapes and sizes. Neurons are similar to other cells in the body because: Neurons are surrounded by a cell membrane.Neurons have a nucleus that contains genes.Neurons contain cytoplasm, mitochondria and other organelles.Neurons carry out basic cellular processes such as protein synthesis and energy production. However, neurons differ from other cells in the body because: Neurons have specialize cell parts called dendrites and axons. The Neuron One way to classify neurons is by the number of extensions that extend from the neuron's cell body (soma). Bipolar neurons have two processes extending from the cell body (examples: retinal cells, olfactory epithelium cells). Pseudounipolar cells (example: dorsal root ganglion cells). What is inside of a neuron?