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Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, lit. "earth description"[1]) is a field of science dedicated to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth.[2] A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC).[3] Four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analysis of the natural and the human phenomena (geography as the study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of the man-land relationship, and research in the Earth sciences.[4] Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities - not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical science". Introduction Branches Physical geography Geomatics

Ptolemy 2nd-century Greco-Egyptian writer and astronomer Background[edit] Engraving of a crowned Ptolemy being guided by the muse of Astronomy, Urania, from Margarita Philosophica by Gregor Reisch, 1508. Although Abu Ma'shar believed Ptolemy to be one of the Ptolemies who ruled Egypt after the conquest of Alexander, the title ‘King Ptolemy’ is generally viewed as a mark of respect for Ptolemy's elevated standing in science. The 9th-century Persian astronomer Abu Maʿshar presents Ptolemy as a member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the descendants of Alexander's general Ptolemy I, who ruled Egypt, were wise "and included Ptolemy the Wise, who composed the book of the Almagest". Astronomy[edit] Ptolemy's Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. The Geography[edit] Geography by Ptolemy, Latin manuscript of the early 15th century Prima Europe tabula. Astrology[edit] The mathematician Claudius Ptolemy 'the Alexandrian', as depicted by a 16th-century engraving[1]

Planisphaerium The mathematician Claudius Ptolemy 'the Alexandrian' as imagined by a 16th-century artist Publication[edit] Herman of Carinthia, translator of Planisphaerium, with an astrolabe Originally written in Ancient Greek, Planisphaerium was one of many scientific works which survived from antiquity in Arabic translation. One reason why Planisphaerium attracted interest was that stereographic projection was the mathematical basis of the plane astrolabe, an instrument which was widely used in the medieval Islamic world. In the 12th century the work was translated from Arabic into Latin by Herman of Carinthia, who also translated commentaries by Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti. Planisphere[edit] The word planisphere (Latin planisphaerium) was originally used in the second century by Ptolemy to describe the representation of a spherical Earth by a map drawn in the plane. [2] Planisphere References[edit] External links[edit] "Ptolemy on Astrolabes"

Almagest Geometric construction used by Hipparchus in his determination of the distances to the sun and moon The Almagest (/ˈælməˌdʒɛst/) is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy (c. AD 100 – c. 170). One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus. The Almagest is the critical source of information on ancient Greek astronomy. It has also been valuable to students of mathematics because it documents the ancient Greek mathematician Hipparchus's work, which has been lost. An edition in Latin of the Almagestum in 1515 Ptolemy set up a public inscription at Canopus, Egypt, in 147 or 148. Names[edit] Contents[edit] Books[edit] Ptolemy's cosmos[edit]

Demetrius Demetrius is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek male given name Dēmḗtrios (Δημήτριος), meaning "devoted to Demeter." Alternate forms include Demetrios, Dimitrios, Dimitris, Dmytro, Dimitri, Demitri, Dhimitër, and Dimitrije,[1][2] in addition to other forms (such as Russian Dmitri) descended from it. Demetrius and its variations may refer to the following: In other languages[edit] References[edit] Demetrius Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Leonardo da Vinci - the Anatomical Artist - Drawing Academy | Drawing Academy Article by Clayton Cogmon Jr. Leonardo da Vinci was born April 15, 1452. He is considered by many the greatest painter of all time. Leonardo da Vinci first began his sketches in Milan, Italy during the year 1482, already a full fledged artist. The sketches were done mostly with a special ink quill and gave much information that would not be discovered again until the 20th century, 500 years later. Anatomist now a day use technologies like MRI scanners (Magnetic Resonance Scanners) to unlock the mysteries of the human body. Leonardo da Vinci, was equipped with nothing but a scalpel, pen, and paper. After several years of studying and observing the human body, da Vinci put aside his anatomical studies for a decade while concerning himself with other matters. During the year 1504, his enthusiasm for anatomy grew again, and he continued his analysis. People today are overwhelmed by the amount of information da Vinci was able to unravel about the human body so long ago. Total cost - Only $257

A Rare Glimpse of Leonardo da Vinci’s Anatomical Drawings Alhough Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452–May 2, 1519) endures as the quintessential polymath, the epitome of the “Renaissance Man” dabbling in a wide array of disciplines — art, architecture, cartography, mathematics, literature, engineering, anatomy, geology, music, sculpture, botany — his interest in science was anything but cursory or amateurish. In Leonardo da Vinci: Anatomist (public library), Martin Clayton, senior curator of the Royal Collection, looks well beyond his iconic Vitruvian Man to explore Leonardo’s remarkably accurate anatomical illustrations that remained hidden from the world for nearly 400 years after Da Vinci’s death. Springing from the “true to nature” ethos of his paintings, Leonardo’s fascination with the human body took him to the morgues and hospitals of Florence, where he performed dissections of corpses, often of executed criminals. His greatest feat was understanding the workings of the heart.

Culture - Leonardo da Vinci’s groundbreaking anatomical sketches We tend to think of Leonardo da Vinci as a painter, even though he probably produced no more than 20 pictures before his death in 1519. Yet for long periods of his career, which lasted for nearly half a century, he was engrossed in all sorts of surprising pursuits, from stargazing and designing ingenious weaponry to overseeing a complex system of canals for Ludovico Maria Sforza, the ruling duke of Milan. During the course of his life, Leonardo filled thousands of pages of manuscript with dense doodles, diagrams, and swirling text, probing almost every conceivable topic. Not for nothing, then, is he often considered the archetypal Renaissance man: as the great British art historian Kenneth Clark put it, Leonardo was the most relentlessly curious person in history. Yet according to Leonardo da Vinci: The Mechanics of Man, a new exhibition at the Edinburgh International Festival, one area of scientific endeavour piqued Leonardo’s curiosity arguably more than any other: human anatomy.

Leonardo da Vinci : The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452 in the small town of Vinci, in Tuscany, near Florence. In 1466, Leonardo moved to Florence, where he entered the workshop of Verrocchio. During this time, da Vinci encountered such artists as Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, and Lorenzo di Credi. Early in his apprenticeship he painted an angel, and perhaps portions of the landscape, in Verrocchio's Baptism of Christ (Uffizi). However, not only was Leonardo a brilliant artist, he was an amazing inventor. Another piece of ingenious from Leonardo was the parachute. Leonardo's thoughts and theories have had an impacted on our world today. Provided to the AIAA for the sole purpose of its Evolution of Flight Campaign. Visit the Italy for more information on Italian pioneers.

Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo's most famous drawing, the Vitruvian Man, is a study of the proportions of the human body, linking art and science in a single work that has come to represent Renaissance Humanism. Condensed biography[edit] NOTE: This is a brief summary of Leonardo's early life and journals with particular emphasis on his introduction to science. Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was born the illegitimate son of Messer Piero, a notary, and Caterina, a peasant woman. His curiosity and interest in scientific observation were stimulated by his uncle Francesco, while his grandfather's keeping of journals set an example which he was to follow for most of his life, diligently recording in his own journals both the events of the day, his visual observations, his plans and his projects. In 1466, Leonardo was sent to Florence to the workshop of the artist Verrocchio, in order to learn the skills of an artist. From Leonardo's journals - studies of an old man and the action of water. The U.S.