Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, lit. "earth description") is a field of science dedicated to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analysis of the natural and the human phenomena (geography as the study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of the man-land relationship, and research in the Earth sciences. Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities - not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical science". Introduction Branches Physical geography Geomatics
PhilosophyPhilosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group". The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom". The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras. Areas of inquiry Philosophy is divided into many sub-fields. Epistemology Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, such as the relationships between truth, belief, and theories of justification. Rationalism is the emphasis on reasoning as a source of knowledge. Logic
World Geography MapGeography is the scientific study of the earth's surface and the World Geography Map depicts both the earth's physical features and the human phenomena on its surface that is the result of man's interaction with his physical environment. The World Geography map therefore not only shows the distribution of the earth's natural landforms on the surface of the globe but also depicts the elements of human intervention such as political boundaries and the division of the world into countries and independent states together with their capitals and principle cities. As far as the earth's physical features are concerned, the World Geography Map shows the distribution of the varied natural landforms and topographical features of the earth's surface on a global scale. The World Geography Map therefore depicts the main features of elevation and depression on the earth's surface and is also the most graphic representation of the earth's various contours and its most prominent physical features.
Category:Geography portalsThis is the top-level category for the portals related to geography. The main portal is Portal:Geography. Subcategories This category has the following 14 subcategories, out of 14 total. Pages in category "Geography portals" The following 10 pages are in this category, out of 10 total.PsychologyPsychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. Etymology History Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Behaviorism Humanistic
Module Seven (B), Activity Two | Exploring AfricaColonial Exploration and Conquest in Africa This activity discusses colonialism in Africa. Colonialism has also been addressed in Module Six: Africa and Its Geography, Module Nine: Economics of Africa, Module Ten: African Politics and Government, and Module Fifteen: Africa and the World. What does colonialism mean? Take a couple of minutes to write a few sentences describing what you know already about colonialism in your Activity Journal. Also write down a few questions addressing what you do not understand or would like to learn about colonialism. Student Journal Assignment: What does colonialism mean? Colonialism is generally defined as the occupation and control of one nation by another. Look at the map below that lists colonial languages that are spoken in the various nations of Africa. Colonial Conquest in Africa The 19th century in Europe was a time of industrialization. Politics in Europe also led to the colonization of Africa. The Treaty of Berlin and the “Scramble for Africa” 1.
Portal:ForestryFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A pine forest in Sweden Forestry is the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and restoring forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands. The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that manage forests to provide environmental supplies and services. The challenge of forestry is to create systems that are socially accepted while sustaining the resource and any other resources that might be affected. Additional categories Purge server cache
EconomicsFor a topical guide to this subject, see Outline of economics. Economics is the social science that studies the behavior of individuals, households, and organizations (called economic actors, players, or agents), when they manage or use scarce resources, which have alternative uses, to achieve desired ends. Agents are assumed to act rationally, have multiple desirable ends in sight, limited resources to obtain these ends, a set of stable preferences, a definite overall guiding objective, and the capability of making a choice. There exists an economic problem, subject to study by economic science, when a decision (choice) has to be made by one or more resource-controlling players to attain the best possible outcome under bounded rational conditions. In other words, resource-controlling agents must maximize value subject to the constraints imposed by the information the agents have, their cognitive limitations, and the finite amount of time they have to make and execute a decision. J.
Book:Earth scienceFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Overview Earth Earth science Earth's spheres Hydrosphere Biosphere Atmosphere Lithosphere Geosphere Pedosphere Cryosphere Magnetosphere Branches of earth science Geology Soil science Oceanography Geography Limnology Glaciology Atmospheric sciencesLinguisticsIn the early 20th century Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics. According to him, parole is the specific utterance of speech, whereas langue refers to an abstract phenomenon that theoretically defines the principles and system of rules that govern a language. This distinction resembles the one made by Noam Chomsky between competence and performance, where competence is individual's ideal knowledge of a language, while performance is the specific way in which it is used. In classical Indian philosophy of language, the Sanskrit philosophers like Patanjali and Katyayana had distinguished between sphota (light) and dhvani (sound). In the late 20th century, French philosopher Jacques Derrida distinguished between the notions of speech and writing. Nomenclature Variation and Universality Lexicon The lexicon is a catalogue of words and terms that are stored in a speaker's mind.