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School children sitting in the shade of an orchard in Bamozai, near Gardez, Paktya Province, Afghanistan A right to education has been recognized by some governments. At the global level, Article 13 of the United Nations' 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to an education.[2] Although education is compulsory in most places up to a certain age, attendance at school often isn't, and a minority of parents choose home-schooling, e-learning or similar for their children. Etymology[edit] Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin ēducātiō ("A breeding, a bringing up, a rearing") from ēdūcō ("I educate, I train") which is related to the homonym ēdūcō ("I lead forth, I take out; I raise up, I erect") from ē- ("from, out of") and dūcō ("I lead, I conduct").[3] Education can take place in formal or informal educational settings. History[edit] Nalanda, ancient center for higher learning Formal education[edit] Related:  Social Sciences

Reduction (complexity) In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a reduction is an algorithm for transforming one problem into another problem. A reduction from one problem to another may be used to show that the second problem is as difficult as the first. The mathematical structure generated on a set of problems by the reductions of a particular type generally forms a preorder, whose equivalence classes may be used to define degrees of unsolvability and complexity classes. Intuitively, problem A is reducible to problem B if an algorithm for solving problem B efficiently (if it existed) could also be used as a subroutine to solve problem A efficiently. When this is true, solving A cannot be harder than solving B. Often we find ourselves trying to solve a problem that is similar to a problem we've already solved. Another, more subtle use is this: suppose we have a problem that we've proven is hard to solve, and we have a similar new problem. from rational numbers. We write Thomas H.

Anthropology Anthropology /ænθrɵˈpɒlədʒi/ is the study of humankind, past and present,[1][2] that draws and builds upon knowledge from social and biological sciences, as well as the humanities and the natural sciences.[3][4] Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology in Great Britain and the US has been distinguished from ethnology[5] and from other social sciences by its emphasis on cross-cultural comparisons, long-term in-depth examination of context, and the importance it places on participant-observation or experiential immersion in the area of research. In those European countries that did not have overseas colonies, where ethnology (a term coined and defined by Adam F. Origin of the term[edit] The term anthropology originates from the Greek anthrōpos (ἄνθρωπος), "human being" (understood to mean humankind or humanity), and -λογία -logia, "study." Fields[edit] According to Clifford Geertz, Sociocultural[edit] Biological[edit]

Teacher Jewish children with their teacher in Samarkand, the beginning of the 20th century A teacher (also called a schoolteacher) is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and students (adults). Duties and functions The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional qualifications or credentials from a university or college. These professional qualifications may include the study of pedagogy, the science of teaching. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. A teacher who facilitates education for an individual may also be described as a personal tutor, or, largely historically, a governess. In some countries, formal education can take place through home schooling. Religious and spiritual teachers, such as gurus, mullahs, rabbis, pastors/youth pastors and lamas, may teach religious texts such as the Quran, Torah or Bible. - Helsingin seudun tapahtumat, uutiset ja hakupalvelut yhdestä osoitteesta Subculture In sociology, and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture to which they belong. The term subculture has become deprecated among some researchers, who prefer the term co-culture, in order to avoid the connotations of inferiority associated with the "sub-" prefix.[1][2] While exact definitions vary, the Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as "a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture."[3] Definition[edit] often negative relations to work (as 'idle', 'parasitic', at play or at leisure, etc.) Identifying subcultures[edit] The study of subcultures often consists of the study of symbolism attached to clothing, music and other visible affectations by members of subcultures, and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members of the dominant culture. Subcultures' relationships with mainstream culture[edit]

Peace Peace is an occurrence of harmony characterized by the lack of violence, conflict behaviors and the freedom from fear of violence. Commonly understood as the absence of hostility and retribution, peace also suggests sincere attempts at reconciliation, the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the establishment of equality, and a working political order that serves the true interests of all. Etymology[edit] The term 'peace' originates most recently from the Anglo-French pes, and the Old French pais, meaning "peace, reconciliation, silence, agreement" (11th century).[1] Pes itself comes from the Latin pax, meaning "compact, agreement, treaty of peace, tranquility, absence of hostility." The English word came into use in various personal greetings from c.1300 as a translation of the Hebrew shalom. Religious beliefs and peace [edit] Islam means submission. Inner peace[edit] Satyagraha[edit]

Public administration Public administration is both an academic discipline and a field of practice; the latter is depicted in this picture of US federal public servants at a meeting. Public administration refers to two meanings: first, it is concerned with the implementation of government policy; second, it is an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.[1] As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function."[2] Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs";[3] the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day";[4] and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies."[5] Definitions[edit] In 1947 Paul H. History[edit]

Mentorship Mentorship is a personal developmental relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. However, true mentoring is more than just answering occasional questions or providing ad hoc help. It is about an ongoing relationship of learning, dialogue, and challenge. The person in receipt of mentorship may be referred to as a protégé (male), a protégée (female), an apprentice or, in recent years, a mentee. "Mentoring" is a process that always involves communication and is relationship based, but its precise definition is elusive. Mentoring in Europe has existed since at least Ancient Greek times. Historical[edit] William Blake's watercolor of "Age teaching youth", a Romantic representation of mentorship. The roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. Mentoring techniques[edit] Typology[edit] There are two broad types of mentoring relationships: formal and informal. Corporate mentorship programs[edit]

Zebible - communauté des jeunes lecteurs de la Bible