community - a review of the theory Community. What is community and why should educators be concerned with it? We explore the development of theory around community, and the significance of boundaries, social networks and social norms – and why attention to social capital and communion may be important. contents: approaching the theory of community · community and boundary · community and network · community – norms and habits · social capital and community · communion and community · further reading · references · links · how to cite this article Since the late nineteenth century, ‘the use of the term community has remained to some extent associated with the hope and the wish of reviving once more the closer, warmer, more harmonious type of bonds between people vaguely attributed to past ages’ (Elias 1974, quoted by Hoggett 1997: 5). Beyond this there are issues around the way ‘community’ appears in political discourse. Approaching the theory of community Place. Anthony P. Boundary and community
Antipositivism Antipositivism (also known as interpretivism or negativism) is the belief in social science that the social realm may not be subject to the same methods of investigation as the natural world; that academics must reject[need quotation to verify] empiricism[dubious ] and the scientific method in the conduct of social research. Antipositivists hold that researchers should focus on understanding the interpretations that social actions have for the people being studied.[need quotation to verify] Concept In the early 19th century various intellectuals, perhaps most notably the Hegelians, began to question the prospect of empirical social analysis. Karl Marx died before the establishment of formal social science but nonetheless fiercely rejected Comtean sociological positivism—despite himself attempting to establish a historical materialist "science of society". Frankfurt School See also References Jump up ^ Gerber, John J.
Cultural relativism Compare moral relativism, aesthetic relativism, social constructionism, and cognitive relativism. Cultural relativism is a principle that was established as axiomatic in anthropological research by Franz Boas in the first few decades of the 20th century and later popularized by his students. Boas first articulated the idea in 1887: "...civilization is not something absolute, but ... is relative, and ... our ideas and conceptions are true only so far as our civilization goes." However, Boas did not coin the term. Epistemological origins "If anyone, no matter who, were given the opportunity of choosing from amongst all the nations in the world the set of beliefs which he thought best, he would inevitably—after careful considerations of their relative merits—choose that of his own country. The epistemological claims that led to the development of cultural relativism have their origins in the German Enlightenment. As a methodological and heuristic device
Participant observation History and development Participant observation was used extensively by Frank Hamilton Cushing in his study of the Zuni Indians in the later part of the nineteenth century, followed by the studies of non-Western societies by people such as Bronisław Malinowski, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, and Margaret Mead in the first half of the twentieth century. It emerged as the principal approach to ethnographic research by anthropologists and relied on the cultivation of personal relationships with local informants as a way of learning about a culture, involving both observing and participating in the social life of a group. The development of participant-observation as a research tool has therefore not been a haphazard process, but instead has practiced a great deal of self-criticism and review. Method and practice Types of participant observation Participant observation is not simply showing up at a site and writing things down. Participant Observation Type Chart.
Ethnography Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. The word can thus be said to have a "double meaning," which partly depends on whether it is used as a count noun or uncountably. The resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group. Origins Gerhard Friedrich Müller developed the concept of ethnography as a separate discipline whilst participating in the Second Kamchatka Expedition (1733–43) as a professor of history and geography. Data collection methods A picture of the Izmir Ethnography Museum (İzmir Etnografya Müzesi) from the courtyard. Differences across disciplines
Agency (philosophy) Agency may either be classified as unconscious, involuntary behavior, or purposeful, goal directed activity (intentional action). An agent typically has some sort of immediate awareness of his physical activity and the goals that the activity is aimed at realizing. In ‘goal directed action’ an agent implements a kind of direct control or guidance over their own behavior. Human agency is the capacity for human beings to make choices. In certain philosophical traditions (particularly those established by Hegel and Marx), human agency is a collective, historical dynamic, rather than a function arising out of individual behavior. Structure and agency forms an enduring core debate in sociology. Bandura, A. (2001).
Topophilia Topophilia (From Greek topos "place" and -philia, "love of") is a strong sense of place, which often becomes mixed with the sense of cultural identity among certain peoples and a love of certain aspects of such a place. History of the term Alan Watts's autobiography, In My Own Way (1972), starts with the sentence: "Topophilia is a word invented by the British poet John Betjeman for a special love for peculiar places." In relation to local sports Sports geographer John Bale in his article "Enshrined in Blood" (The Sports Historian, 17, 2) has noted the opportunities sport stadia have for topophilia, citing five metaphors that make stadiums particularly topophilic: They are 'sacred spaces' for their followers, particularly if euphoric or tragic incidents have taken place within them, such as the Hillsborough disaster.They often have 'scenic' qualities, such as the view of the Gateway Arch at Busch Stadium in St.  See also External links Ogunseitan, Oladele A.
Sense of place Geographic place To understand sense of place, the geographic concept of space needs first to be defined. Geographic space is the space that encircle the planet or in orbit ones body, through which biological life moves. It is differentiated from "outer space" and "inner space" (inside the mind). One definition of place, proposed by Tuan, is that a place comes into existence when humans give meaning to a part of the larger, undifferentiated space. Placelessness Places that lack a "sense of place" are sometimes referred to as "placeless" or "inauthentic." Developing a sense of place Understanding how sense of place develops and changes is relevant to understanding how people interact with their environment in general and considering how this interaction may become more sustainable. See also References Jump up ^ Tuan, Yi-Fu (1980). Further reading Chigbu, U.E. (2013). External links
social capital: civic community and education Social capital. The notion of social capital is a useful way of entering into debates about civil society – and is central to the arguments of Robert Putnam and others who want to ‘reclaim public life’. It is also used by the World Bank with regard to economic and societal development and by management experts as a way of thinking about organizational development. We examine its nature, some of the issues surrounding its use, and its significance for educators. Contents: introduction · social capital for starters · types of social capital · the decline in social capital · some critiques of the bowling alone theses · the benefits of social capital · social capital in organizations · social capital and informal education · conclusion – some issues with social capital · further reading and references · links · acknowledgements · how to cite this article Social capital for starters For John Field (2003: 1-2) the central thesis of social capital theory is that ‘relationships matter’. Links
Social capital In sociology, social capital is the expected collective or economic benefits derived from the preferential treatment and cooperation between individuals and groups. Although different social sciences emphasize different aspects of social capital, they tend to share the core idea "that social networks have value". Just as a screwdriver (physical capital) or a university education (cultural capital or human capital) can increase productivity (both individual and collective), so do social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups. Background The term "social capital" was in occasional use from about 1890, but only became widely used in the late 1990s. In the first half of the 19th century, Alexis de Tocqueville had observations about American life that seemed to outline and define social capital. L. John Dewey actually used the term in his monograph entitled "School and Society" in 1900, but he offered no definition of it. Evaluating social capital