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Not to be confused with Realty. Philosophers, mathematicians, and other ancient and modern thinkers, such as Aristotle, Plato, Frege, Wittgenstein, and Russell, have made a distinction between thought corresponding to reality, coherent abstractions (thoughts of things that are imaginable but not real), and that which cannot even be rationally thought. By contrast existence is often restricted solely to that which has physical existence or has a direct basis in it in the way that thoughts do in the brain. Reality is often contrasted with what is imaginary, delusional, (only) in the mind, dreams, what is false, what is fictional, or what is abstract. At the same time, what is abstract plays a role both in everyday life and in academic research. For instance, causality, virtue, life, and distributive justice are abstract concepts that can be difficult to define, but they are only rarely equated with pure delusions. The truth refers to what is real, while falsity refers to what is not. Being

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Problem of universals While philosophers agree that human beings talk and think about properties, they disagree on whether these universals exist in reality or merely in thought and speech. Positions[edit] The main positions on the issue are generally considered to be: realism, nominalism, and idealism (sometimes simply called "anti-realism" with regard to universals).[4] Realism[edit] Humanism In modern times, humanist movements are typically aligned with secularism, and today "Humanism" typically refers to a non-theistic life stance centred on human agency, and looking to science instead of religious dogma in order to understand the world.[2] Background The word "Humanism" is ultimately derived from the Latin concept humanitas, and, like most other words ending in -ism, entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning (literally "good letters").

Rationality Determining optimality for rational behavior requires a quantifiable formulation of the problem, and making several key assumptions. When the goal or problem involves making a decision, rationality factors in how much information is available (e.g. complete or incomplete knowledge). Collectively, the formulation and background assumptions are the model within which rationality applies. Illustrating the relativity of rationality: if one accepts a model in which benefitting oneself is optimal, then rationality is equated with behavior that is self-interested to the point of being selfish; whereas if one accepts a model in which benefiting the group is optimal, then purely selfish behavior is deemed irrational. It is thus meaningless to assert rationality without also specifying the background model assumptions describing how the problem is framed and formulated.

It's More Than Just a Stick.... or a Carrot! Discussion The statistical analysis of the results shows that those students who received bushcraft tuition did outperform those who did not receive bushcraft tuition. Thereby proving that the inclusion of bushcraft in taught sessions does affect and indeed improve students attainment. This test can? prove that bushcraft would similarly impact all areas of a countryside management course but it is encouraging to see that at least in this area there is significant correlation. Metaphysics Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,[1] although the term is not easily defined.[2] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:[3] Ultimately, what is there?What is it like?

Symbiosis In a symbiotic mutualistic relationship, the clownfish feeds on small invertebrates that otherwise have potential to harm the sea anemone, and the fecal matter from the clownfish provides nutrients to the sea anemone. The clownfish is additionally protected from predators by the anemone's stinging cells, to which the clownfish is immune. Symbiosis (from Ancient Greek σύν "together" and βίωσις "living")[1] is close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species. Ignorance Ignorance is a state of being uninformed (lack of knowledge).[1] The word ignorant is an adjective describing a person in the state of being unaware and is often used as an insult to describe individuals who deliberately ignore or disregard important information or facts. Ignoramus is commonly used in the UK, Ireland, and the US as a term for someone who is willfully ignorant. Ignorance is distinguished from stupidity, although both can lead to "unwise" acts. Writer Thomas Pynchon articulated about the scope and structure of one's ignorance: "Ignorance is not just a blank space on a person's mental map.

Occult Battery Definition: How Humans are Used as Batteries When we think of a battery, we often think of an object that stores electrical energy for powering electronic devices. This common definition of battery only shows us the overt meaning of battery. To find its deeper meanings, you need to know how the word battery is used in other subjects, such as law, business, and commerce. Once you know the relation of the word battery to law, business, and commerce, you will know what I mean when I say that in the occult world, the word battery is sometimes used to describe the process of harnessing the energy of slave workers.

Karl Popper Karl Raimund Popper CH FBA FRS[4] (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British[5] philosopher and professor at the London School of Economics.[6] He is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century.[7][8] Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method, in favour of empirical falsification: A theory in the empirical sciences can never be proven, but it can be falsified, meaning that it can and should be scrutinized by decisive experiments. If the outcome of an experiment contradicts the theory, one should refrain from ad hoc manoeuvres that evade the contradiction merely by making it less falsifiable. Personal life[edit] Family and training[edit] Karl Popper was born in Vienna (then in Austria-Hungary) in 1902, to upper middle-class parents. He worked in street construction for a short amount of time, but was unable to cope with the heavy labour.

Integral (spirituality) Integral thought is claimed to provide "a new understanding of how evolution affects the development of consciousness and culture."[3] It includes areas such as business, education, medicine, spirituality, sports,[14] psychology and psychotherapy.[15] The idea of the evolution of consciousness has also become a central theme in much of integral theory.[16] According to the Integral Transformative Practice website, integral means "dealing with the body, mind, heart, and soul."[17]