Boolean algebra was introduced by George Boole in his first book The Mathematical Analysis of Logic (1847), and set forth more fully in his An Investigation of the Laws of Thought (1854). According to Huntington the term "Boolean algebra" was first suggested by Sheffer in 1913. Boolean algebra has been fundamental in the development of digital electronics, and is provided for in all modern programming languages. It is also used in set theory and statistics. History In the 1930s, while studying switching circuits, Claude Shannon observed that one could also apply the rules of Boole's algebra in this setting, and he introduced switching algebra as a way to analyze and design circuits by algebraic means in terms of logic gates. Values As with elementary algebra, the purely equational part of the theory may be developed without considering explicit values for the variables. Operations Basic operations The basic operations of Boolean algebra are as follows. J.
Bionics (also known as bionical creativity engineering) is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. The transfer of technology between lifeforms and manufactures is, according to proponents of bionic technology, desirable because evolutionary pressure typically forces living organisms, including fauna and flora, to become highly optimized and efficient. A classical example is the development of dirt- and water-repellent paint (coating) from the observation that the surface of the lotus flower plant is practically unsticky for anything (the lotus effect).. Ekso Bionics is currently developing and manufacturing intelligently powered exoskeleton bionic devices that can be strapped on as wearable robots to enhance the strength, mobility, and endurance of soldiers and paraplegics. The term "biomimetic" is preferred when reference is made to chemical reactions.
Overview The main concepts of information theory can be grasped by considering the most widespread means of human communication: language. Two important aspects of a concise language are as follows: First, the most common words (e.g., "a", "the", "I") should be shorter than less common words (e.g., "roundabout", "generation", "mediocre"), so that sentences will not be too long. Such a tradeoff in word length is analogous to data compression and is the essential aspect of source coding. Second, if part of a sentence is unheard or misheard due to noise — e.g., a passing car — the listener should still be able to glean the meaning of the underlying message. Note that these concerns have nothing to do with the importance of messages. Information theory is generally considered to have been founded in 1948 by Claude Shannon in his seminal work, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication". Historical background With it came the ideas of Quantities of information Entropy . that
The main article for this category is Cybernetics. Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems with feedback, their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Cybernetics is relevant to the study of systems, such as mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social. Subcategories This category has the following 14 subcategories, out of 14 total. Pages in category "Cybernetics" The following 122 pages are in this category, out of 122 total.
French mathematician, physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science Jules Henri Poincaré (, ; French: [ɑ̃ʁi pwɛ̃kaʁe] ( listen); 29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science. As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics. In his research on the three-body problem, Poincaré became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern chaos theory. Poincaré made clear the importance of paying attention to the invariance of laws of physics under different transformations, and was the first to present the Lorentz transformations in their modern symmetrical form. The Poincaré group used in physics and mathematics was named after him. Life Education First scientific achievements Career Students Death Work
Robotics is the branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and computer science that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. Etymology History of robotics Robotic aspects Components Power source
Normative and descriptive decision theory Since people usually do not behave in ways consistent with axiomatic rules, often their own, leading to violations of optimality, there is a related area of study, called a positive or descriptive discipline, attempting to describe what people will actually do. Since the normative, optimal decision often creates hypotheses for testing against actual behaviour, the two fields are closely linked. Furthermore it is possible to relax the assumptions of perfect information, rationality and so forth in various ways, and produce a series of different prescriptions or predictions about behaviour, allowing for further tests of the kind of decision-making that occurs in practice. In recent decades, there has been increasing interest in what is sometimes called 'behavioral decision theory' and this has contributed to a re-evaluation of what rational decision-making requires. What kinds of decisions need a theory? Choice under uncertainty
Artificial life is an interdisciplinary line of research (largely between computer science and biology, but with applications in wide areas including economics and archeology) with the aim to create living or lifelike artificial systems, either in the form of computer programs or in the form of robots. Subcategories This category has the following 9 subcategories, out of 9 total. Pages in category "Artificial life" The following 43 pages are in this category, out of 43 total.
Alex Faickney Osborn
Alex Faickney Osborn (May 24, 1888 – May 5, 1966) was an advertising executive and the author of the creativity technique named brainstorming. Founding of BBDO In 1919, Osborn joined with Bruce Fairchild Barton and Roy Sarles Durstine to form the BDO advertising agency. Osborn acted as manager of BDO's Buffalo branch. Creativity theorist Osborn became increasingly active as an author, and published several books on creative thinking. In 1954, Osborn set up the Creative Education Foundation, sustained by the royalties earned from his books. Notable advertising work Books A Short Course in Advertising, London, New York: Sir I. Osborn also contributed frequently to trade publications such as Printer's Ink. Family life On September 15, 1916, he married Helen Coatsworth, the daughter of a wealthy Buffalo lawyer. Sources Bruce Fairchild Barton, Roy Sarles Durstine, and Alex Faickney Osborn, Joan Vidal, João Lins. References 3.
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