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Self-perception theory. Bem's original experiment[edit] In an attempt to decide whether individuals induce their attitudes as observers without accessing their internal states, Bem used interpersonal simulations, in which an “observer-participant” is given a detailed description of one condition of a cognitive dissonance experiment.

Self-perception theory

Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tedious peg-turning task. Some subjects were told that the man had been paid $20 for his testimonial and another group was told that he was paid $1. Those in the latter condition thought that the man must have enjoyed the task more than those in the $20 condition. The results obtained were similar to the original Festinger-Carlsmith experiment. Further evidence[edit] Psychology of self. Outline of self. Self – individual person, from his or her own perspective.

Outline of self

To you, self is you. To a different person, self is that person. Life stages/events[edit] Stages of life[edit] Major life events[edit] Individual rights[edit] Self-concept. One's self-perception is defined by one's self-concept, self-knowledge, self-esteem, and social self.


One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, or self-perspective) is a collection of beliefs about oneself[1][2] that includes elements such as academic performance,[3][4][5][6][7] gender roles and sexuality,[8][9][10] and racial identity.[11] Generally, self-concept embodies the answer to "Who am I? ".[12] Self-Consciousness  Philosophical work on self-consciousness has mostly focused on the identification and articulation of specific epistemic and semantic peculiarities of self-consciousness, peculiarities which distinguish it from consciousness of things other than oneself.


After drawing certain fundamental distinctions, and considering the conditions for the very possibility of self-consciousness, this article discusses the nature of those epistemic and semantic peculiarities. The relevant epistemic peculiarities are mainly those associated with the alleged infallibility and self-intimation of self-consciousness. It has sometimes been thought that our consciousness of ourselves may be, under certain conditions, infallible, in the sense that it cannot go wrong: when we believe that some fact about us obtains, it does. It has also sometimes been thought that some forms of consciousness are self-intimating: if a certain fact about us obtains, we are necessarily going to be conscious that it does. 1. 2. 3. A Brief Guide to Embodied Cognition: Why You Are Not Your Brain.

Embodied cognition, the idea that the mind is not only connected to the body but that the body influences the mind, is one of the more counter-intuitive ideas in cognitive science.

A Brief Guide to Embodied Cognition: Why You Are Not Your Brain

The Self Illusion: How Our Social Brain Constructs Who We Are. The story of the self. Memory is our past and future.

The story of the self

To know who you are as a person, you need to have some idea of who you have been. And, for better or worse, your remembered life story is a pretty good guide to what you will do tomorrow. Personal Identity  What does being the person that you are, from one day to the next, necessarily consist in?

Personal Identity 

This is the question of personal identity, and it is literally a question of life and death, as the correct answer to it determines which types of changes a person can undergo without ceasing to exist. Personal identity theory is the philosophical confrontation with the most ultimate questions of our own existence: who are we, and is there a life after death? In distinguishing those changes in a person that constitute survival from those changes in a person that constitute death, a criterion of personal identity through time is given. You Won’t Stay the Same, Study Finds. By Mac William Bishop, Channon Hodge, Pedro Rafael Rosado and Erica Berenstein Self-Perception, Past and Future: The Times’s John Tierney discusses new research showing that people tend to “underestimate how much they will change in the future.”

You Won’t Stay the Same, Study Finds

They called this phenomenon the “end of history illusion,” in which people tend to “underestimate how much they will change in the future.” According to their research, which involved more than 19,000 people ages 18 to 68, the illusion persists from teenage years into retirement. “Middle-aged people — like me — often look back on our teenage selves with some mixture of amusement and chagrin,” said one of the authors, Daniel T.

Gilbert, a psychologist at Harvard. Other psychologists said they were intrigued by the findings, published Thursday in the journal Science, and were impressed with the amount of supporting evidence. Why? “Believing that we just reached the peak of our personal evolution makes us feel good,” Dr. Dr. The end is always nigh in the human mind - opinion - 07 June 2011. Why are we so attracted to prophecies of doom, from religious raptures to environmental collapse?

The end is always nigh in the human mind - opinion - 07 June 2011

Self Concept: Identity Theory Humanistic View. Snygg and Combs. Dr.

Snygg and Combs

C. George Boeree Sometimes, a theory fails to gain the attention it deserves because it is too simple, too clear, too practical. Snygg and Combs' theory is a good example. Although it has had a quiet impact on a number of humanists, it didn't have the "pizzazz" other theories did. The phenomenal field First, "all behavior, without exception, is completely determined by and pertinent to the phenomenal field of the behaving organism. " And so, if we wish to understand and predict people's behavior, we need to get at their phenomenal field. And then you are set to understand and predict the person's behavior, since, as the quote above says, all their behavior will follow as a reasonable, meaningful, purposeful response to the person's phenomenal field.

One motive. How Our Delusions Keep Us Sane: The Psychology of Our Essential Self-Enhancement Bias. By Maria Popova How evolution made the average person believe she is better in every imaginable way than the average person. “Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement; nothing can be done without hope,” Helen Keller wrote in her 1903 treatise on optimism. But a positive outlook, it turns out, isn’t merely an intellectual disposition we don — it’s a deep-seated component of our evolutionary wiring and the product of powerful, necessary delusions our mind is working around-the-clock to maintain. At the root of that mental machinery lies what psychologists have termed the self-enhancement bias — our systematic tendency to forgo rational evaluation of our own merits and abilities in favor of unrealistic attitudes that keep our ego properly inflated as to avoid sinking into the depths of despair.