Self-perception theory. Bem's original experiment In an attempt to decide whether individuals induce their attitudes as observers without accessing their internal states, Bem used interpersonal simulations, in which an “observer-participant” is given a detailed description of one condition of a cognitive dissonance experiment. Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tedious peg-turning task. Some subjects were told that the man had been paid $20 for his testimonial and another group was told that he was paid $1.
Those in the latter condition thought that the man must have enjoyed the task more than those in the $20 condition. The results obtained were similar to the original Festinger-Carlsmith experiment. Because the observers, who did not have access to the actors’ internal cognition and mood states, were able to infer the true attitude of the actors, it is possible that the actors themselves also arrive at their attitudes by observing their own behavior. Applications Psychology of self. The psychology of self is the study of either the cognitive, conative or affective representation of one's identity or the subject of experience. The earliest formulation of the self in modern psychology derived from the distinction between the self as I, the subjective knower, and the self as Me, the object that is known. Current views of the self in psychology position the self as playing an integral part in human motivation, cognition, affect, and social identity. It may be the case that we can now usefully attempt to ground experience of self in a neural process with cognitive consequences, which will give us insight into the elements of which the complex multiply situated selves of modern identity are composed.
Kohut's formulation Heinz Kohut initially proposed a bipolar self compromising two systems of narcissistic perfection: 1) a system of ambitions and, 2) a system of ideals. Winnicott's selves D. Berne's transactional analysis Memory and the self Outline of self. Self – individual person, from his or her own perspective. To you, self is you. To a different person, self is that person. Life stages/events Stages of life Major life events Individual rights Individual rights – much of the western world values the concept of individual rights.
Security rights – protect people against crimes such as murder, massacre, torture and rape Security of person – liberty, including the right, if one is imprisoned unlawfully, to the remedy of habeas corpus. Components of self Personality traits Main articles: Big Five personality traits and Trait theory Harmful traits and practices Personal values Virtues Virtue – characteristic of a person which supports individual moral excellence and collective well being. Vices Main articles: Vice and Sufism Self-actualization Self-actualization – Self management Self-management – Self-preservation and self-maintenance Other personal concepts See also
Self-concept. One's self-perception is defined by one's self-concept, self-knowledge, self-esteem, and social self. One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, or self-perspective) is a collection of beliefs about oneself that includes elements such as academic performance, gender roles and sexuality, and racial identity. Generally, self-concept embodies the answer to "Who am I? ". One's self-concept is made up of self-schemas, and their past, present, and future selves. Self-concept is made up of one's self-schemas, and interacts with self-esteem, self-knowledge, and the social self to form the self as whole. It includes the past, present, and future selves, where future selves (or possible selves) represent individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, or what they are afraid of becoming.
Possible selves may function as incentives for certain behavior. History Model Development Self-Consciousness Philosophical work on self-consciousness has mostly focused on the identification and articulation of specific epistemic and semantic peculiarities of self-consciousness, peculiarities which distinguish it from consciousness of things other than oneself.
After drawing certain fundamental distinctions, and considering the conditions for the very possibility of self-consciousness, this article discusses the nature of those epistemic and semantic peculiarities. The relevant epistemic peculiarities are mainly those associated with the alleged infallibility and self-intimation of self-consciousness.
It has sometimes been thought that our consciousness of ourselves may be, under certain conditions, infallible, in the sense that it cannot go wrong: when we believe that some fact about us obtains, it does. It has also sometimes been thought that some forms of consciousness are self-intimating: if a certain fact about us obtains, we are necessarily going to be conscious that it does. 1. 2. 3. A Brief Guide to Embodied Cognition: Why You Are Not Your Brain | Guest Blog. Embodied cognition, the idea that the mind is not only connected to the body but that the body influences the mind, is one of the more counter-intuitive ideas in cognitive science.
In sharp contrast is dualism, a theory of mind famously put forth by Rene Descartes in the 17th century when he claimed that “there is a great difference between mind and body, inasmuch as body is by nature always divisible, and the mind is entirely indivisible... the mind or soul of man is entirely different from the body.” In the proceeding centuries, the notion of the disembodied mind flourished. From it, western thought developed two basic ideas: reason is disembodied because the mind is disembodied and reason is transcendent and universal. However, as George Lakoff and Rafeal Núñez explain: Cognitive science calls this entire philosophical worldview into serious question on empirical grounds... What exactly does this mean? Embodied cognition has a relatively short history. The Self Illusion: How Our Social Brain Constructs Who We Are. The story of the self.
Memory is our past and future. To know who you are as a person, you need to have some idea of who you have been. And, for better or worse, your remembered life story is a pretty good guide to what you will do tomorrow. "Our memory is our coherence," wrote the surrealist Spanish-born film-maker, Luis Buñuel, "our reason, our feeling, even our action. " Lose your memory and you lose a basic connection with who you are. It's no surprise, then, that there is fascination with this quintessentially human ability. This is quite a trick, psychologically speaking, and it has made cognitive scientists determined to find out how it is done. When you ask people about their memories, they often talk as though they were material possessions, enduring representations of the past to be carefully guarded and deeply cherished.
We know this from many different sources of evidence. Even highly emotional memories are susceptible to distortion. What accounts for this unreliability? Personal Identity What does being the person that you are, from one day to the next, necessarily consist in? This is the question of personal identity, and it is literally a question of life and death, as the correct answer to it determines which types of changes a person can undergo without ceasing to exist.
Personal identity theory is the philosophical confrontation with the most ultimate questions of our own existence: who are we, and is there a life after death? In distinguishing those changes in a person that constitute survival from those changes in a person that constitute death, a criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. One popular criterion, associated with Plato, Descartes and a number of world religions, is that persons are immaterial souls or pure egos. Table of Contents 1. A. B. 2. …a physiological criterion of personal identity is false. a. B. You Won’t Stay the Same, Study Finds. By Mac William Bishop, Channon Hodge, Pedro Rafael Rosado and Erica Berenstein Self-Perception, Past and Future: The Times’s John Tierney discusses new research showing that people tend to “underestimate how much they will change in the future.” They called this phenomenon the “end of history illusion,” in which people tend to “underestimate how much they will change in the future.”
According to their research, which involved more than 19,000 people ages 18 to 68, the illusion persists from teenage years into retirement. “Middle-aged people — like me — often look back on our teenage selves with some mixture of amusement and chagrin,” said one of the authors, Daniel T. Gilbert, a psychologist at Harvard. “What we never seem to realize is that our future selves will look back and think the very same thing about us. Other psychologists said they were intrigued by the findings, published Thursday in the journal Science, and were impressed with the amount of supporting evidence.
Why? Dr. The end is always nigh in the human mind - opinion - 07 June 2011. Why are we so attracted to prophecies of doom, from religious raptures to environmental collapse? It's part of our psychology IN 1919, William Butler Yeats wrote The Second Coming, an allegory of the atmosphere in Europe after the carnage of the first world war. Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhereThe ceremony of innocence is drowned;The best lack all conviction, while the worstAre full of passionate intensity. The poem draws heavily on the mythic narrative of the apocalypse - or at least the first half of it, destruction.
What usually follows is rebirth and redemption, a second chance, life born anew. The latest incarnation of the destruction-redemption myth is brought to you by numerological number-cruncher and evangelical Christian radio host Harold Camping. Like Camping's rapture, many of these prognostications have failed to unfold. Why, then, do we find the basic narrative so appealing? Self Concept: Identity Theory Humanistic View. Snygg and Combs. Dr. C. George Boeree Sometimes, a theory fails to gain the attention it deserves because it is too simple, too clear, too practical. Snygg and Combs' theory is a good example. Although it has had a quiet impact on a number of humanists, it didn't have the "pizzazz" other theories did.
The phenomenal field First, "all behavior, without exception, is completely determined by and pertinent to the phenomenal field of the behaving organism. " And so, if we wish to understand and predict people's behavior, we need to get at their phenomenal field. And then you are set to understand and predict the person's behavior, since, as the quote above says, all their behavior will follow as a reasonable, meaningful, purposeful response to the person's phenomenal field.
One motive Which brings us to Snygg and Combs' understanding of motivation: "The basic need of everyone is to preserve and enhance the phenomenal self, and the characteristics of all parts of the field are governed by this need. " Readings. How Our Delusions Keep Us Sane: The Psychology of Our Essential Self-Enhancement Bias. By Maria Popova How evolution made the average person believe she is better in every imaginable way than the average person. “Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement; nothing can be done without hope,” Helen Keller wrote in her 1903 treatise on optimism.
But a positive outlook, it turns out, isn’t merely an intellectual disposition we don — it’s a deep-seated component of our evolutionary wiring and the product of powerful, necessary delusions our mind is working around-the-clock to maintain. At the root of that mental machinery lies what psychologists have termed the self-enhancement bias — our systematic tendency to forgo rational evaluation of our own merits and abilities in favor of unrealistic attitudes that keep our ego properly inflated as to avoid sinking into the depths of despair. The mind’s delusory tendencies, McRaney explains, are just as vital as the automatic self-preservation processes of the body.
Illustration from 'The Mightly Lalouche' by Sophie Blackall.