Desiderius Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (27 October 1466 – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, or simply Erasmus, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. Amongst humanists, he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists"; he has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He also wrote On Free Will, The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works. Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Early life Ordination and monastic experience Education and scholarship
Irreligion Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion. When characterized as the rejection of religious belief, it includes explicit atheism, religious dissidence, and secular humanism. When characterized as hostility towards religion, it includes anticlericalism, antireligion, and antitheism. When characterized as indifference to religion, it includes apatheism. When characterized as the absence of religious belief, it may also include deism, implicit atheism, spiritual but not religious, agnosticism, pandeism, ignosticism, nontheism, pantheism, panentheism, religious skepticism, and freethought. Irreligion may include forms of theism, depending on the religious context it is defined against. In 18th-century Europe, the epitome of irreligion was deism. Constitutional protections Demographics See also References Further reading
Scholasticism Predominant method of critical thought in academic pedagogy of medieval European universities, circa 1100–1700 14th-century image of a university lecture Scholasticism was a medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical method of philosophical analysis presupposed upon a Latin Catholic theistic paradigm which dominated teaching in the medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700. It originated within the Christian monastic schools that were the basis of the earliest European universities. The rise of scholasticism was closely associated with these schools that flourished in Italy, France, Spain and England. Scholasticism is not so much a philosophy or a theology as a method of learning, as it places a strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning to extend knowledge by inference and to resolve contradictions. Etymology History Early Scholasticism High Scholasticism Spanish Scholasticism Late Scholasticism Lutheran Scholasticism
Huldrych Zwingli Huldrych (or Ulrich/Ulricht[a]) Zwingli[b] (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly centre of humanism. He continued his studies while he served as a pastor in Glarus and later in Einsiedeln, where he was influenced by the writings of Erasmus. The Reformation spread to other parts of the Swiss Confederation, but several cantons resisted, preferring to remain Catholic. Historical context Map of the Swiss Confederation in 1515 The Swiss Confederation in Huldrych Zwingli's time consisted of thirteen states (cantons) as well as affiliated states and common lordships. The political environment in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries was also volatile. Life Early years (1484–1518) Zurich ministry begins (1519–1521) First rifts (1522–1524)
Secular humanism The philosophy or life stance of secular humanism (alternatively known by some adherents as Humanism, specifically with a capital H to distinguish it from other forms of humanism) embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making. The International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) is the world union of more than one hundred Humanist, rationalist, irreligious, atheistic, Bright, secular, Ethical Culture, and freethought organizations in more than 40 countries. The "Happy Human" is the official symbol of the IHEU as well as being regarded as a universally recognised symbol for those who call themselves Humanists. Terminology However, many adherents of the approach reject the use of the word secular as obfuscating and confusing, and consider that the term secular humanism has been "demonized by the religious right...
John VIII Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος, translit. Iōannēs Palaiologos; 18 December 1392 – 31 October 1448) was the penultimate reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling from 1425 to 1448. Life John VIII Palaiologos was the eldest son of Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragaš, the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragaš. John VIII Palaiologos named his brother Constantine XI, who had served as regent in Constantinople in 1437–1439, as his successor. John VIII died at Constantinople in 1448, becoming the last reigning Byzantine emperor to die of natural causes. Marriages John VIII Palaiologos was married three times. His first marriage was in 1414 to Anna of Moscow, daughter of Grand Prince Basil I of Moscow (1389–1425) and Sophia of Lithuania. His third marriage, arranged by the future cardinal, Bessarion, was to Maria of Trebizond in 1427. Representation in art Gallery Ancestry See also List of Byzantine emperors
Martin Luther Martin Luther OSA (German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈlʊtɐ] ( ); 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German monk, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the 16th-century movement in Christianity known later as the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with monetary values. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. His refusal to retract all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor. Luther taught that salvation and subsequently eternity in heaven is not earned by good deeds but is received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin and subsequently eternity in Hell. Early life Birth and education Monastic and academic life
Anna of Moscow Anna Vasilievna of Moscow (1393 – August 1417) was a Byzantine Empress consort by marriage to John VIII Palaiologos. She died while her husband was still the junior co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Family She was a daughter of Vasily I of Moscow and Sophia of Lithuania. Her maternal grandparents were Vytautas the Great and his first wife, Anna. Marriage She married John VIII in 1414. Ancestry External links Cawley, Charles, Her listing, along with her husband, ., Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Lutheranism Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German monk and theologian. Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations by members of Protestantism and overall Christianity. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that the Bible is the final authority on all matters of faith, denying the Catholic belief of authority coming from both the Bible and the established Church Magisterium. Unlike the Reformed Churches, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Etymology The name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. History Spread into northern Europe Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Revivals
New World History of the New World "Historia antipodum oder newe Welt". Matthäus Merian, 1631. The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda). The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas in the age of discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa, Europe, and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World (a.k.a. The phrase gained prominence after the publication of a pamphlet titled Mundus Novus attributed to Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. The Americas were also referred to as the "fourth part of the world". Usage The terms "Old World" vs. The term "New World" is used in a biological context, when one speaks of Old World (Palearctic, Afrotropic) and New World species (Nearctic, Neotropic).
Confessionalization Confessionalization is a recent concept employed by Reformation historians to describe the parallel processes of "confession-building" taking place in Europe between the Peace of Augsburg (1555) and the Thirty Years' War (1618-1649). During this time prior to the Thirty Years' War, there was a nominal peace between the Protestant and Catholic confessions as both competed to establish their faith more firmly with the population of their respective area. This confession-building occurred through "social-disciplining," as there was a stricter enforcement by the churches of their particular rules for all aspects of life in both Protestant and Catholic areas. This had the consequence of creating distinctive confessional identities. Calvin's Geneva is a model case for the confessional era because of its high degree of social control, unity and homogeneity under one expression of a reformed Christian faith. The Genevan model was informed by an interpretation of Erasmus' humanism.
Sophia of Montferrat Sophia of Montferrat (or Sophia Palaiologina; died 21 August 1434) was a Byzantine Empress consort by marriage to John VIII Palaiologos. Life Sophia was a daughter of Theodore II Palaiologos, Marquess of Montferrat, and his second wife, Joanna of Bar. Through her father, Sophia was a relative of the reigning Byzantine Palaiologi dynasty. On 26 January 1404, Sophia was betrothed to Filippo Maria Visconti. Manuel had sent Nicholas Eudaimonoioannes as ambassador to the Council of Constance while seeking Papal permission for the marriage, as the issue was the conversion of the Roman Catholic bride to the Eastern Orthodox Church. On 21 July 1425, Manuel II died and John VIII succeeded him. Ancestry  Jump up ^ Sphrantzes, ch. 6; translated in Marios Philippides, The Fall of the Byzantine Empire: A Chronicle by George Sphrantzes, 1401-1477 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1980), p. 24Jump up ^ Michael Doukas, Historia Bizantina, chap. Sources External links