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Hard problem of consciousness

Hard problem of consciousness
The existence of a "hard problem" is controversial and has been disputed by some philosophers.[4][5] Providing an answer to this question could lie in understanding the roles that physical processes play in creating consciousness and the extent to which these processes create our subjective qualities of experience.[3] Several questions about consciousness must be resolved in order to acquire a full understanding of it. These questions include, but are not limited to, whether being conscious could be wholly described in physical terms, such as the aggregation of neural processes in the brain. If consciousness cannot be explained exclusively by physical events, it must transcend the capabilities of physical systems and require an explanation of nonphysical means. For philosophers who assert that consciousness is nonphysical in nature, there remains a question about what outside of physical theory is required to explain consciousness. Formulation of the problem[edit] Easy problems[edit] T.H. Related:  Wisdom

Lego Serious Play at CERN, Challenge Based innovation CBi is the latest iteration of an evolving experiment at CERN in Geneva. The CBi acronym stands for “Challenge Based innovation”, and the experiment pulls in students from several countries and multiple disciplines. The Scimpulse Foundation collaborates with CERN since 2013 and in this occasion we facilitate a concept design workshop. It’s a sunny September morning in Mayrin, the outskirts of Geneva, right on the side of the ATLAS experiment building there is a new shell enclosure where a bunch of students practice and learn about innovation. Dr. Marco Manca is the coach of the team and he wants to make sure that they come out of the experience with a new mindset. The challenge is to design something that may enable blind people to perceive the surrounding environment; maybe some type of augmented sensory device. They call themselves the “Heisenberg” team. They fly through the training! what is Vision? To know how we did it, keep on reading … Let me see! Let me see!

Consciousness 1. History of the issue Questions about the nature of conscious awareness have likely been asked for as long as there have been humans. Neolithic burial practices appear to express spiritual beliefs and provide early evidence for at least minimally reflective thought about the nature of human consciousness (Pearson 1999, Clark and Riel-Salvatore 2001). Nonetheless, some have argued that consciousness as we know it today is a relatively recent historical development that arose sometime after the Homeric era (Jaynes 1974). Although the words “conscious” and “conscience” are used quite differently today, it is likely that the Reformation emphasis on the latter as an inner source of truth played some role in the inward turn so characteristic of the modern reflective view of self. By the beginning of the early modern era in the seventeenth century, consciousness had come full center in thinking about the mind. Locke's contemporary G.W. 2. 2.1 Creature Consciousness Sentience. Wakefulness. 3.

Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom From SystemsWiki by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony Mills There is probably no segment of activity in the world attracting as much attention at present as that of knowledge management. Yet as I entered this arena of activity I quickly found there didn't seem to be a wealth of sources that seemed to make sense in terms of defining what knowledge actually was, and how was it differentiated from data, information, and wisdom. What follows is the current level of understanding I have been able to piece together regarding data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. According to Russell Ackoff [1989], a systems theorist and professor of organizational change, the content of the human mind can be classified into five categories: Ackoff indicates that the first four categories relate to the past; they deal with what has been or what is known. A further elaboration of Ackoff's definitions follows: Data... data is raw. Ex: It is raining. Ex: It rains because it rains. Now consider the following:

C.G.JUNG Los escritos de Freud constituyeron una experiencia fundamental en los estudios de Jung. La Interpretación de los sueños lo impresionó notablemente. En 1906 Jung le envió a Freud una copia de su libro Psicología de la demencia precoz y éste le respondió con agradecimiento y críticas. En 1907 Jung fue a Viena invitado por Freud, y estuvieron reunidos durante trece horas consecutivas. “Freud”, dice Jung, “fue el primer hombre realmente importante con el que me había topado, ningún otro podía comparársele. En 1909, renunció a su puesto en Burghölzli para dedicarse a su consulta privada en Küsnacht, donde se había construido una casa a orillas del lago. “Emprendimos el viaje en Bremen en 1909. “Freud tuvo un sueño, cuyo contenido no estoy autorizado a revelar. “Freud no pudo, como digo anteriormente, interpretar mis sueños de entonces más que parcialmente o, en algunos casos, en absoluto. El sueño fue el siguiente: me encontraba en una casa desconocida que tenía dos plantas.

Information Overload's 2,300-Year-Old History - Ann Blair by Ann Blair | 10:45 AM March 14, 2011 We’re all worried about the costs of information overload and we typically associate these problems with new digital technologies. But actually information overload has very deep roots: signs of information overload were present already in the accumulation of manuscript texts in pre-modern cultures and were further accelerated by the introduction of printing (in the 15th century in the case of Europe). In the Western tradition, complaints about the abundance of books surface in antiquity (in Ecclesiastes 12:12 or Seneca in the 1st century CE). In 1255 the Dominican Vincent of Beauvais articulated eloquently the key ingredients of the feeling of overload which are still with us today: “the multitude of books, the shortness of time and the slipperiness of memory.” In the 15th century, printing rapidly multiplied the number of books available and lowered their cost. Ann Blair is Henry Charles Lea Professor of History at Harvard.

Intuition pump In the case of the Chinese Room argument, Dennett argues that the intuitive notion that a person manipulating symbols seems inadequate to constitute any form of consciousness ignores the requirements of memory, recall, emotion, world knowledge and rationality that the system would actually need to pass such a test. "Searle does not deny that programs can have all this structure, of course," Dennett says.[2] "He simply discourages us from attending to it. But if we are to do a good job imagining the case, we are not only entitled but obliged to imagine that the program Searle is hand-simulating has all this structure — and more, if only we can imagine it. But then it is no longer obvious, I trust, that there is no genuine understanding of the joke going on." A popular strategy in philosophy is to construct a certain sort of thought experiment I call an intuition pump [...]. See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Baggini, Julian; Peter Fosl (2003). "2". External links[edit]

DIKW Pyramid The DIKW Pyramid, also known variously as the "DIKW Hierarchy", "Wisdom Hierarchy", the "Knowledge Hierarchy", the "Information Hierarchy", and the "Knowledge Pyramid",[1] refers loosely to a class of models[2] for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge".[1] History[edit] "The presentation of the relationships among data, information, knowledge, and sometimes wisdom in a hierarchical arrangement has been part of the language of information science for many years. Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom[edit] In the same year as Ackoff presented his address, information scientist Anthony Debons and colleagues introduced an extended hierarchy, with "events", "symbols", and "rules and formulations" tiers ahead of data.[7][16] Data, Information, Knowledge[edit] Description[edit] Data[edit] Structural vs.

Digitale Lehre: Harvard für alle | Studium Kostenlos studieren bei den berühmtesten Professoren des Landes: Die Online-Kurse der US-Elite-Unis machen das möglich. Nur wer soll die Angebote am Ende finanzieren? Speichern Drucken Twitter Facebook Google + "Gestern habe ich die Uni gewechselt", schreibt Dan Fellin aus Portland, Oregon, auf seinem Blog. Moment, halblang, wovon ist überhaupt die Rede? Anzeige Sieht so der Anfang einer gigantischen Bildungsrevolution aus? Studenten aus aller Welt helfen sich gegenseitig Statt abgefilmter Vorlesungen bekommen die Teilnehmer kurze erklärende Einheiten vom Dozenten vorgetragen, dann folgt ein Verständnistest, erst dann geht das Video weiter. Nachdem Udacity den Anfang gemacht hatte, zogen andere nach. Udacity, edX und Coursera haben innerhalb der Universitätslandschaft hohe Wellen geschlagen, die auch in Deutschland angekommen sind. Das Zertifikat, das das HPI ausstellt, hat dabei eher symbolischen Wert.

The Problem with the Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Hierarchy - David Weinberger by David Weinberger | 9:00 AM February 2, 2010 The data-information-knowledge-wisdom hierarchy seemed like a really great idea when it was first proposed. But its rapid acceptance was in fact a sign of how worried we were about the real value of the information systems we had built at such great expense. What looks like a logical progression is actually a desperate cry for help. The DIKW hierarchy (as it came to be known) was brought to prominence by Russell Ackoff in his address accepting the presidency of the International Society for General Systems Research in 1989. Where is the Life we have lost in living? Those lines come from the poem “The Rock” by T.S. The DIKW sequence made immediate sense because it extends what every Computer Science 101 class learns: information is a refinement of mere data. But, the info-to-knowledge move is far more problematic than the data-to-info one. So, what is “knowledge” in the DIKW pyramid? And humbug.

Philosophy of mind A phrenological mapping[1] of the brain – phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness, and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. The mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is commonly seen as one key issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body, such as how consciousness is possible and the nature of particular mental states.[2][3][4] Mind–body problem[edit] Our perceptual experiences depend on stimuli that arrive at our various sensory organs from the external world, and these stimuli cause changes in our mental states, ultimately causing us to feel a sensation, which may be pleasant or unpleasant. Arguments for dualism[edit]

Metacognition: The Gift That Keeps Giving Editor's note: This post is co-authored by Marcus Conyers who, with Donna Wilson, is co-developer of the M.S. and Ed.S. Brain-Based Teaching degree programs at Nova Southeastern University. They have written several books, including Five Big Ideas for Effective Teaching: Connecting Mind, Brain, and Education Research to Classroom Practice. Students who succeed academically often rely on being able to think effectively and independently in order to take charge of their learning. These students have mastered fundamental but crucial skills such as keeping their workspace organized, completing tasks on schedule, making a plan for learning, monitoring their learning path, and recognizing when it might be useful to change course. Many teachers we know enjoy teaching students how to wield one of the most powerful thinking tools: metacognition, or the ability to think about your thoughts with the aim of improving learning. Metacognition in the Brain How to Teach Students to Be More Metacognitive

Metaplasticity Metaplasticity refers to activity-dependent changes in neural functions that modulate subsequent synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Simply put, it is the “plasticity of synaptic plasticity” (Abraham and Bear, 1996). Metaplasticity can be distinguished from conventional neuromodulation of plasticity, in which molecules such as other neurotransmitters (e.g., GABA or monoamines), cytokines, or hormones that are present at the time of plasticity induction regulate the degree of LTP or LTD elicited (Fig. 1). Functionally, metaplasticity endows synapses with the capacity to integrate plasticity-relevant signals across time. Many types of metaplasticity occur homosynaptically, in that the effects of priming synaptic activity on plasticity mechanisms are confined to the primed synapses. One metaplasticity consequence of activating NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is a homosynaptic facilitation of subsequent LTD (Christie and Abraham, 1992). Stress