Brain Atlas - Introduction The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord, immersed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Weighing about 3 pounds (1.4 kilograms), the brain consists of three main structures: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem. Cerebrum - divided into two hemispheres (left and right), each consists of four lobes (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal). The outer layer of the brain is known as the cerebral cortex or the ‘grey matter’.
Neurologic Effects of Caffeine Caffeine, or 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, is related structurally to uric acid. It is metabolized by demethylation and oxidation. The major human pathway results in paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine), leading to the principal urinary metabolites, L-methylxanthine, 1-methyluric acid, and an acetylated uracil derivative. Minor degradation pathways involve the formation and metabolism of theophylline and theobromine. neurotransmitters and neuromodulators The soft warm living substance of the brain and nervous system stands in stark contrast to the rigid metal and plastic hardware of a modern day computer, but at the fundamental level there are clear similarities between these two apparently disparate organizational systems and, of course, one is a product of the other. Not only are the nerve cell units (neurons) self-repairing and self-wiring under the grand design built into our genes, but they can also promote, amplify, block, inhibit, or attenuate the micro-electric signals which are passed to them, and through them. In this way they give rise to signalling patterns of myriad complexity between networks of cerebral neurons, and this provides the physical substrate of mind. These key processes of signalling by one group, or family, of neurons to another is achieved largely by the secretion of tiny quantities of potent chemical substances by neuronal fibre terminals. In this way, the nerve impulses are passed on from cell to cell. 1.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging Researcher checking fMRI images Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases. The primary form of fMRI uses the Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. The procedure is similar to MRI but uses the change in magnetization between oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood as its basic measure.
Cold Coffee Recipes for a Hot Summer Day Many coffee drinkers resort to the iced versions as summertime arrives. A variety of iced coffee recipes have been shared all over the globe, but the ones you'll find here are a bit more adventurous. There's an art to making a scrumptious cup of cold coffee, which involves some little tricks and a few special ingredients. Neuron All neurons are electrically excitable, maintaining voltage gradients across their membranes by means of metabolically driven ion pumps, which combine with ion channels embedded in the membrane to generate intracellular-versus-extracellular concentration differences of ions such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium. Changes in the cross-membrane voltage can alter the function of voltage-dependent ion channels. If the voltage changes by a large enough amount, an all-or-none electrochemical pulse called an action potential is generated, which travels rapidly along the cell's axon, and activates synaptic connections with other cells when it arrives.
Mike, the Headless Chicken lived for 18 Months - Facts Analysis-HoaxOrFact.com Analysis. Story: A chicken named Mike lived for 18 months after its head was cut off. Other Versions 1. A chicken named Mike lived for 18 months after its head was cut off they celebrate mike the headless chicken days in fruita Colorado every year!! List all the essential neurotransmitters Acetylcholine - synthesized from Choline, Lecithin, and panthothenic acid (B5), or Diethylaminoethanol (DMAE) - Arousal and orgasm - voluntary muscular control and proper tone - enhance energy and stamina - memory - long-term planning - mental focus Dopamine - synthesized from amino acid Levodopa
Diffusion MRI Diffusion MRI (or dMRI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method which came into existence in the mid-1980s. It allows the mapping of the diffusion process of molecules, mainly water, in biological tissues, in vivo and non-invasively. Molecular diffusion in tissues is not free, but reflects interactions with many obstacles, such as macromolecules, fibers, membranes, etc. Water molecule diffusion patterns can therefore reveal microscopic details about tissue architecture, either normal or in a diseased state. Study Shows Meditation Changes Brain Structure in Just 8 Weeks - Family Health Guide Written by Suzannah Moss - FHG Senior Writer Participants in an 8 week mindfulness meditation class experienced structural brain changes including increased grey-matter density in the hippocampus, known to be important for learning and memory, and in structures associated with self-awareness, compassion and introspection. This is the first research to document meditation-produced changes in the brain. Previous research has identified differences in brain activity and structure between practised meditators and non-meditators. Researchers noted that long-term meditation alters brain-wave patterns, with greater activity in brain circuits involved in attention. They also found that brain regions associated with attention and sensory processing were thicker in meditators than in controls.
Making Sense of the World, Several Senses at a Time Our five senses–sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell–seem to operate independently, as five distinct modes of perceiving the world. In reality, however, they collaborate closely to enable the mind to better understand its surroundings. We can become aware of this collaboration under special circumstances. In some cases, a sense may covertly influence the one we think is dominant. When visual information clashes with that from sound, sensory crosstalk can cause what we see to alter what we hear. When one sense drops out, another can pick up the slack.
Brain (Hindbrain, Midbrain, Forebrain) Brain Unlike the spinal cord, which has changed little in structure during vertebrate evolution, the brain has changed dramatically. A primitive linear brain, as seen in fishes and amphibians, expanded to form a deeply fissured and enormously intricate brain in the lineage leading to mammals (Figure 35-12). It reaches its greatest complexity in the human brain, which contains some 35 billion nerve cells, each of which may receive information from tens of thousands of synapses at one time. The ratio between weight of the brain and that of the spinal cord affords a fair criterion of an animal’s intelligence.