Top 20 Greatest Inventions of All Time Technology is a core component of the human experience. We have been creating tools to help us tame the physical world since the early days of our species. Any attempt to count down the most important technological inventions is certainly debatable, but here are some major advancements that should probably be on any such list (in chronological order): You requested someone with a degree in this? *Holds up hand* You requested someone with a degree in this? *Holds up hand* So there are two main schools of Artificial Intelligence — Symbolic and non-symbolic. Symbolic says the best way to make AI is to make an expert AI — e.g. if you want a doctor AI, you feed it medical text books and it answers questions by looking it up in the text book. Non-symbolic says the best way to make AI is to decide that computers are better at understanding in computer, so give the information to the AI and let it turn that in to something it understands. As a bit of an apt aside — consider the Chinese room thought experiment.
More Than Just Male and Female: The Six Genders in Classical Judaism — SOJOURN It's very easy to assume that Judaism is an exclusively gender-binary religion. Almost all of the common traditional laws are based on the assumed differences between males and females. We see it in assumed gender roles, in liturgy, in proscribed family responsibilities, and in both our secular and religious laws. If, however, we look just a bit deeper into our sacred texts, we see that a simple male/female binary is not only cumbersome, it's wholly inaccurate. This description from Trans Torah/Rabbi Elliot Kukla starts the conversation that we will continue throughout the summer:
Mexico City, Paris, Madrid, Athens To Ban Diesel Vehicles Mexico City has joined with Paris, Madrid and Athens in committing to eliminating diesel vehicles from their cities by 2025. The agreement was announced at the C40 Mayors Summit in Mexico's capital late Thursday. A statement said the commitment would reduce air pollution and related health issues in those cities, while also helping cities meet climate goals. "It's a worldwide public health concern,'' Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo said Friday.
Teaching kids empathy: In Danish schools, it’s … well, it’s a piece of cake We all know what a Danish pastry is — that delightful caloric bomb of glazed breakfast deliciousness. But what about a Danish classroom cake? And moreover, how can this help teach empathy? While researching our book “The Danish Way of Parenting; What the Happiest People in the World Know About Raising Confident, Capable Kids,” my co-author and I interviewed numerous teachers and students across Denmark to learn how they incorporate empathy in schools and at home.
From MIT Press: 10 Topics Every 21st Century Citizen Should Know About “That’s it: I need to know what I need to know!” I exclaimed recently when I heard about the “Essential Knowledge” series published by MIT Press. Know what I mean? Before European Christians Forced Gender Roles, Native Americans Acknowledged 5 Genders It wasn’t until Europeans took over North America that natives adopted the ideas of gender roles. For Native Americans, there was no set of rules that men and women had to abide by in order to be considered a “normal” member of their tribe. In fact, people who had both female and male characteristics were viewed as gifted by nature, and therefore, able to see both sides of everything. According to Indian Country Today, all native communities acknowledged the following gender roles: “Female, male, Two Spirit female, Two Spirit male and Transgendered.” “Each tribe has their own specific term, but there was a need for a universal term that the general population could understand. The Navajo refer to Two Spirits as Nádleehí (one who is transformed), among the Lakota is Winkté (indicative of a male who has a compulsion to behave as a female), Niizh Manidoowag (two spirit) in Ojibwe, Hemaneh (half man, half woman) in Cheyenne, to name a few.
16 stunning pictures taken from space in 2016 As 2016 comes to an end, the Earth will soon have completed the 365.24219 revolutions on its axis and the 940 million kilometres of its orbit around the sun since the beginning of the year. Here are 16 stunning images taken in space in 2016. Grand planet Earth 2016-04-08 – The giant blue marble and the Philippines seen from the International Space Station (ISS). (Credit: NASA)