Imperial China Ancient Chinese Civilization 1 click Chinese Historical Accounts the Forbidden City, the home of the Chinese emperors until the last dynasty was overthrown in the 20th century Chinese history, until the twentieth century, was written mostly by members of the ruling scholar-official class and was meant to provide the ruler with precedents to guide or justify his policies. These accounts focused on dynastic politics and colorful court histories and included developments among the commoners only as backdrops. The historians described a Chinese political pattern of dynasties, one following another in a cycle of ascent, achievement, decay, and rebirth under a new family. Of the consistent traits identified by independent historians, a salient one has been the capacity of the Chinese to absorb the people of surrounding areas into their own civilization. Sun-Tzu, the realist writer of the the influential "Art of War" The first prehistoric dynasty is said to be Xia , from about the twenty-first to the sixteenth century B.C.
Ancient China China is a country in East Asia whose culture is considered the oldest, still extant, in the world. The name `China’ comes from the Sanskrit Cina (derived from the name of the Chinese Qin Dynasty, pronounced `Chin’) which was translated as `Cin’ by the Persians and seems to have become popularized through trade along the Silk Road from China to the rest of the world. The Romans and the Greeks knew the country as `Seres’, “the land where silk comes from”. The name `China’ does not appear in print in the west until 1516 CE in Barbosa’s journals narrating his travels in the east (though the Europeans had long known of China through trade via the Silk Road). Marco Polo, the famous explorer who familiarized China to Europe in the 13th century CE, referred to the land as `Cathay’. Pre-History Well before the advent of recognizable civilization in the region, the land was occupied by hominids. The First Dynasties Tang was from the kingdom of Shang. The Zhou Dynasty The Qin Dynasty The Han Dynasty
The Real Reason America Used Nuclear Weapons Against Japan. It Was Not To End the War Or Save Lives. Like all Americans, I was taught that the U.S. dropped nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in order to end WWII and save both American and Japanese lives. But most of the top American military officials at the time said otherwise. The U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey group, assigned by President Truman to study the air attacks on Japan, produced a report in July of 1946 that concluded (52-56): Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey’s opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945 and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945, Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. General (and later president) Dwight Eisenhower – then Supreme Commander of all Allied Forces, and the officer who created most of America’s WWII military plans for Europe and Japan – said:
Chine : histoire Dès le iiie s. avant notre ère (-221), la Chine connaît la formation d’un État centralisé, œuvre de la dynastie des Qin issue de la lutte entre Royaumes combattants, et dont héritent les Han. Toutefois, les invasions « barbares » en provenance du nord et du nord-est et/ou les rébellions intérieures affaiblissent à plusieurs reprises le pouvoir central, entraînant une division du pays entre le Nord et le Sud, du ive s. au vie s. (Six Dynasties), au xe s. (Cinq Dynasties) après le rayonnement de l’empire Tang (618-907), puis aux xiie et xiiie s.. La réunification et le perfectionnement de l’État mandarinal par les Song au xie s. marquent une époque charnière. 1. Les restes du plus vieil hominidé découvert en Chine sont datés de 1,9 million d'années. Les anciens historiens chinois plaçaient au début de leur histoire une série de souverains qui auraient régné à des époques très reculées. Pour en savoir plus, voir l'article Qin Shi Huangdi. 2. Pour en savoir plus, voir l'article Xia. 3. 4.
East India Company - Once world’s most powerful corporation 2 clicks It was the most powerful multinational corporation the world had ever seen. Founded in 1600, the English East India Company’s power stretched across the globe from Cape Horn to China. The company was established for trading, with a royal charter by Queen Elizabeth I granting it a monopoly over business with Asia. Imagine a company with the influence of Google or Amazon, granted a state-sanctioned monopoly and the right to levy taxes abroad But the Company’s influence went further. It owned the ports of Singapore and Penang and played a major role in developing cities including Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. Imagine a company with the influence of Google or Amazon, granted a state-sanctioned monopoly and the right to levy taxes abroad – and with MI6 and the army at its disposal. From its establishment by royal charter to its ability to raise armies, the East India Company was a product of its time. Acing the interview Competition to work at the East India Company was fierce. Unpaid internships
Calligraphie chinoise La Calligraphie est un art chinois qui permet de former les signes d'une langue et avoir un large champ d'expression. La plus connue de toutes est celle qui est dessinée avec un pinceau, il vous faudra beaucoup de souplesse dans le poignet pour commencer votre apprentissage de ce merveilleux langage original et riche de la culture asiatique chinoise. À une période lointaine, les Chinois gravaient sur des os d'animaux comme le bœuf, ou sur les carapaces des tortues. La calligraphie a plus de 3000 ans. Plusieurs sortes de pinceaux sont utilisés pour la peinture chinoise. Les trois types de pinceaux les plus utilisés sont à poil de loup, à poils de chèvre, mais vous avez aussi un mélange des 2 poils pour un pinceau unique. Avant toute utilisation, la pointe du pinceau est recouverte de colle, il faut la dissoudre avant toute chose, de l'eau tiède suffit généralement. Au départ, prenez un papier dit de "brouillon" pour vous entraîner. Apprentissage de la calligraphie [Modifier]
Ancient China - Ancient Civilizations East Asia also has dry areas. The Gobi Desert is found along the border between Mongolia and China. The Gobi is the 5th largest desert in the world and is also the coldest. It is common to see frost or even snow on the sand and gravel dunes. Most of western China is very dry because of the rain shadow created by the Himalaya Mountains. A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward (opposite of windward) side of a mountainous area. Despite the dry and mountainous terrain of East Asia, there are some low plains suitable for early civilization. Heavy summer rains and snowmelt support 2 large river systems in East Asia. East Asia has many different climate types. Early History Humans probably reached East Asia between 30,000 and 50,000 years ago. Ancient China It is difficult to be sure about China’s early ancient history. The Zhou Dynasty (1046 BCE-256 BCE) lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history. Agriculture was usually directed by the government. Dynasty.
History of Eritrea Eritrea is an ancient name, associated in the past with its Greek form Erythraia, Ἐρυθραία, and its derived Latin form Erythræa. This name relates to that of the Red Sea, then called the Erythræan Sea, from the Greek for "red", ἐρυθρός, erythros. The Italians created the colony of Eritrea in the 19th century around Asmara, and named it with its current name. After World War II Eritrea was annexed to Ethiopia. Prehistory In 1995, one of the oldest hominids, representing a possible link between Homo erectus and an archaic Homo sapiens was found in Buya, Eritrea by Italian scientists dated to over 1 million years old (the oldest of its kind), providing a link between hominids and the earliest humans. It is also believed that Eritrea was on the route out of Africa that was used by early man to colonize the rest of the Old World. Early history Egyptian soldiers from Queen Hatshepsut's Year 9 expedition to the Land of Punt, as depicted on her temple at Deir el-Bahri.
China: Surviving the Camps by Zha Jianying | NYR Daily By now, it has been nearly forty years since the Cultural Revolution officially ended, yet in China, considering the magnitude and significance of the event, it has remained a poorly examined, under-documented subject. Official archives are off-limits. Serious books on the period, whether comprehensive histories, in-depth analyses, or detailed personal memoirs, are remarkably few. At the center of the book is the cowshed, the popular term for makeshift detention centers that had sprung up in many Chinese cities at the time. To mentally relive such darkness and to record it all in such an unswervingly candid manner could not have been easy for an elderly man: Ji was over eighty at the time of writing. Originally published by an official press in Beijing in 1998, during a politically relaxed moment, The Cowshed probably benefited from the author’s eminent status in China. Reading Ji’s account again, however, has also renewed some of my old questions and frustrations.
Feudalism in China Feudalism in China Although Feudalism is often referred to as a European concept occurring in the medieval period, similar systems have been found to exist in many non-European parts of the world. The Chinese history for instance, from the Zhou or Chou dynasty to the Qin Dynasty (1122 BC—256 BC) has been termed a true feudal period by many Chinese marxist historians, due to the custom of enfeoffment of land similar to that in Europe. The first kings of the Zhou dynasty enfeoffed their fellow warriors and relatives, creating large domains of land. In the Chinese Marxists histories, the Zhou dynasty symbolizes the beginning of the feudal stage in Chinese history which continues until the fall of the Qin dynasty. The second assumption for classifying the Zhou as feudal by Guo Moruo was the similarity of the essential elements of feudalism that included granting of land in form of ‘fiefs’ to the knighted gentry, as in case of European feudalism. Comparisons See also
China History: Chronology, Dynasty Qin Han Tang Song Yuan Ming Qing China, one of the countries that can boast of an ancient civilization, has a long and mysterious history - almost 5,000 years of it! Like most other great civilizations of the world, China can trace her culture back to a blend of small original tribes which have expanded till they became the great country we have today. It is recorded that Yuanmou man is the oldest hominoid in China and the oldest dynasty is Xia Dynasty. From the long history of China, there emerge many eminent people that have contributed a lot to the development of the whole country and to the enrichment of her history. Among them, there are emperors like Li Shimin (emperor Taizong of the Tang), philosophers like Confucius, great patriotic poets like Qu Yuan and so on. Chinese society has progressed through five major stages - Primitive Society, Slave Society, Feudal Society, Semi-feudal and Semi-colonial Society, and Socialist Society. Chinese History Chronology