Extreme weather conditions cost EU’s transport system at least €15 billion annually « Scientific Earth Conscientious. A study carried out by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland indicates that extreme weather conditions cost EU transport system at least €15 billion a year. Currently, the greatest costs incurred are from road accidents, with the associated material damage and psychological suffering. However, costs arising from accidents are expected to decrease in volume, though time-related costs attributable to delays are projected to increase. In part, this is due to climate change, whose impact on extreme weather phenomena was addressed in the study, and because of consequent costs.
In the study conducted by VTT and EWENT project partners, researchers calculated the costs, caused by extreme weather phenomena for the transport system, its users and customers of freight carriers in the 27 EU member states. This marks the first time calculations have been completed on this scale and scope. In road traffic, heavy time-related costs are particularly frequent in freight traffic. Like this: Antarctica Fire History. Progress Research Station - Russia - Larsemann Hills/Prydz Bay, East Antarctica - October 5th 2008 - Two Story Building MOSCOW, October 9 (RIA Novosti)A two-story building, part of Russia's Progress station in Antarctica, caught fire killing one construction worker and seriously injuring two others, the expedition's head said on Thursday.
Valery Lukin said the fire broke out on Sunday on the station, where 29 people are based, completely destroying the radio equipment, which made it impossible to contact Russian officials about the incident until Thursday. "All the radio equipment was destroyed. One of the station's construction workers... died, and two others received serious fractures and injuries," Lukin said. The injured have been taken to a nearby clinic and are receiving the necessary medical treatment. The earliest date that an evacuation could be carried out is early November. An investigation into the fire is being carried out. Antarctic Sun article Arson By email. How to Build a fire in the snow « Survival Training.
Food in Antarctica. Modern Antarctic Clothing. Accessories to Protect the Extremities - Head, Fingers and Toes (not forgetting ankles, wrists and neck) The extremities can get very cold very quickly. Fingers and toes have a high surface area compared to their volume - this means they lose heat easily and generate and retain heat poorly. Particular attention should be paid to keeping them warm. The head can lose up to 20% of the body's heat, in cold weather, the quickest and simplest thing that can be done to warm up is to put on a hat, particularly convenient and useful when taking a rest break after some exertion. In extremis for the sake of survival, if the body is losing so much heat that it may be in danger, blood flow to those parts losing the most heat and that are "expendable" may be shut down to a trickle (this will not happen to your head however!).
Hands In very cold conditions 2 or 3 pairs of gloves or mittens according to the conditions and activity. Ski-type gloves are good as they are warm and water resistant with it. Clothes. Origins: Antarctica: Tools. In Antarctica, protecting yourself from the cold can be a matter of life and death. But the human body isn't the only thing at risk; tools and equipment can also easily malfunction in Antarctica's extreme conditions. In an environment where metal hammerheads have been known to shatter from the cold, where lubricants can easily ice over and bind up, and where computer screens can literally freeze, researchers have to equip themselves with a range of special gear, and constantly be on the lookout for unexpected complications. With no place to get supplies once they get there, Antarctic travelers have to make sure to bring everything they will need with them, down to the last battery and tube of toothpaste.
They also need to be careful not to leave any of it behind. While Antarctica is still one of the least-impacted places on Earth, decades of human visitation have taken their toll on its environment. AMANDA: the search for high-energy neutrinos nearly two miles under the ice. How animals survive cold conditions. One of the commonest questions asked about animals in Antarctica is how do they cope with the extreme cold conditions that are found there?
Air temperatures averaging below freezing over the year (usually well below freezing) with a range in many places around -40°C to +10°C and highs up to +22°C amongst rocks and moss banks. Much of Antarctica is a cold largely featureless icy desert where positive temperatures are hardly if ever reached. The temperature of the Antarctic Ocean that surrounds the continent varies from -2°C to +2°C over the year, seawater freezes at -2°C so it can't get any colder and still be water. Antarctic birds and mammals - penguins, whales and seals - are warm blooded animals and they maintain similar internal body temperatures to warm blooded animals in any other climate zone - that is 35-42°C (95-107°F) depending on the species. They have to keep high body temperatures to remain active. The answer is a huge seasonal supply of food. Antarctic Animals.
Do people live in Antarctica. Arctic Studies Center - Resources - Frequently Asked Questions. Shelters. Connecticut's Extreme Weather Home | WXedge.com | The Igloo - An Arctic Home. By Scott Cimini on February 27, 2012, 12:00am Use your ← → (arrow) keys to browse more stories. Long before brick or wood houses became common, people had to be creative when building homes to protect them from the weather. Wealthy Europeans built fortified castles and Native Americans built teepees made from animal hides or bark. What about the people who lived in a very cold environment? Living in the frozen tundra made it very hard to find any building materials so they built their homes with the only abundant material they had around them which was snow. The people who lived in this frozen tundra were the Inuit, better known as the Eskimos. When people think about igloos, they picture a small, dome-shaped house built entirely out of blocks of ice.
Igloos come in many sizes. A well constructed igloo, coupled with a very small oil lamp and plain old body heat, can warm an igloo up 40 degrees above the outside temperature. More articles you'll like. Can You Survive in the Antarctic? The Arctic People - Food / Hunting / Tools.