Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia. Introduction Developmental Dyslexia (DD) is defined as a specific disability in learning to read adequately despite at least normal intelligence, adequate instruction and socio-cultural opportunities, and the absence of sensory defects in vision and hearing (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
The prevailing views concerning the etiology of DD point to a deficit in encoding, representing and processing speech sounds (Snowling, 2001; Ramus et al., 2003; Ramus and Szenkovits, 2008). However, the question whether these difficulties reveal the core deficit of dyslexia or whether they are manifestations of a more general and basic auditory deficit is controversial. According to Tallal's (1980) hypothesis, children with DD would be impaired in their ability to perceive auditory stimuli that have short duration and occur in rapid succession. A second controversy concerns the selectivity of the auditory processing deficit i.e., its being restricted to brief and rapidly presented stimuli. Altered connectivity of the dorsal and ventral visual regions in dyslexic children: a resting-state fMRI study.
1State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China2Center for Collaboration and Innovation in Brain and Learning Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China3Beijing Key Lab of Learning and Cognition, Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China While there is emerging evidence from behavioral studies that visual attention skills are impaired in dyslexia, the corresponding neural mechanism (i.e., deficits in the dorsal visual region) needs further investigation.
We used resting-state fMRI to explore the functional connectivity (FC) patterns of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the visual word form area (VWFA) in dyslexic children (N = 21, age mean = 12) and age-matched controls (N = 26, age mean = 12). A multisensory perspective of working memory. Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Although our sensory experience is mostly multisensory in nature, research on working memory representations has focused mainly on examining the senses in isolation.
Results from the multisensory processing literature make it clear that the senses interact on a more intimate manner than previously assumed. These interactions raise questions regarding the manner in which multisensory information is maintained in working memory. We discuss the current status of research on multisensory processing and the implications of these findings on our theoretical understanding of working memory. A review on functional and structural brain connectivity in numerical cognition. In the history of neurology, attempts to explain normal and impaired cognitive function following brain damage have alternated between two extreme perspectives; specifically, views based on localization of function and views based on functional connectivity.
The localizationist view ascribes specific cognitive functions to gray matter (GM) brain areas with cognitive impairments attributed to lesions of these specific areas. Prominent historical examples of this view include the work of Broca (1861) and Wernicke (1874), who associated language production and perception, respectively, with specific cortical structures. Another prominent example of localization of function is the work of Brodmann (1909), who proposed a map of 46 cortical areas—so-called Brodmann areas (BA)—and their functionality.
This work still influences neuro-scientific research today. In the present paper we summarize and review the existing evidence on brain hodology underlying numerical cognition. Table 1. Attentional and non-attentional systems in the maintenance of verbal information in working memory: the executive and phonological loops. 1Laboratory of Cognitive Development, Fribourg Center for Cognition, Département de Psychologie, Université de Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland2Developmental Cognitive Psychology, Faculté de Psychologie et des Sciences l’Education, Université de Genève, Genève, Switzerland Working memory is the structure devoted to the maintenance of information at short term during concurrent processing activities.
In this respect, the question regarding the nature of the mechanisms and systems fulfilling this maintenance function is of particular importance and has received various responses in the recent past. Awareness of Rhythm Patterns in Speech and Music in Children with Specific Language Impairments. Auditory cortical deactivation during speech production and following speech perception: an EEG investigation of the temporal dynamics of the auditory alpha rhythm. 1Department of Audiology and Speech Pathology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Knoxville, TN, USA2Department of Communication Disorders, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA Sensorimotor integration (SMI) across the dorsal stream enables online monitoring of speech.
Brain plasticity-based therapeutics. Background In the evolution of treatments of neurological and psychiatric impairments and illness, mainstream medical science has followed two broad paths.
One originated with the early Twentieth Century discovery of pharmaceutical agents demonstrated to have powerful, distorting impacts on human neurology (Perrine, 1996; López-Muñoz and Alamo, 2009). Especially from about the middle of the Twentieth Century onward, drug-based medicine has been increasingly strongly supported by technically-sophisticated fundamental neuroscience, which has struggled mightily to describe and define neurological processes and diseases in specific chemical terms, on the path to their chemical manipulation for medical advantage. Into the present era, legions of medical professionals predominantly deploy one or the other of these two classes of therapeutic tools to address, in very different ways, the hundreds of neurological and psychiatric disorders that fall within their clinical purview.
Cochlear implantation (CI) for prelingual deafness: the relevance of studies of brain organization and the role of first language acquisition in considering outcome success. 1Deafness Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, London, UK2Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK Cochlear implantation (CI) for profound congenital hearing impairment, while often successful in restoring hearing to the deaf child, does not always result in effective speech processing.
Exposure to non-auditory signals during the pre-implantation period is widely held to be responsible for such failures. Here, we question the inference that such exposure irreparably distorts the function of auditory cortex, negatively impacting the efficacy of CI. Animal studies suggest that in congenital early deafness there is a disconnection between (disordered) activation in primary auditory cortex (A1) and activation in secondary auditory cortex (A2).
In humans, one factor contributing to this functional decoupling is assumed to be abnormal activation of A1 by visual projections—including exposure to sign language. Cortical Alpha Oscillations Predict Speech Intelligibility. Introduction Hearing in humans is normally quantified using pure tone audiometry, which measures absolute sensitivity across a wide range of pure tone frequencies centered on those thought most useful for speech perception (Moore, 2013).
However, the resulting audiogram does not provide a complete picture of listening abilities encountered in everyday environments. Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration. Introduction Although most children learn to read fluently, between 5 and 10% of children are diagnosed with developmental dyslexia exhibiting deficient reading skills despite normal cognitive abilities and schooling opportunities (Lyon et al., 2003; Blomert, 2005; Snowling, 2013).
The formation of letter-speech sound pairs, an important first step in obtaining reading expertise in alphabetic orthographies, forms an immediate obstacle for beginner readers with dyslexia (Share, 1995; Ehri, 2005; Wimmer and Schurz, 2010; Blomert, 2011). Consequently, many dyslexia interventions include modules focused on teaching letter-speech sound correspondences (Bus and Van Ijzendoorn, 1999; Tijms and Hoeks, 2005; Aravena et al., 2013) next to dealing with impaired phonological processing (Snowling, 1998; Ramus and Szenkovits, 2008).
Figure 1. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority. Department of Psychology, Center for Visual Cognition, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. Emotional language processing in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Introduction Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent impairments in social communication and interaction, restricted and repetitive behavior, and an onset of the disorder in early childhood (APA, 2013). While ASD was divided into subtypes in previous versions of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), different forms of ASD are now combined in one broad category in the new DSM-5 (APA, 2013).
Clinically important diagnostic characteristics of ASD include lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, emotions, affect, interests, or achievements with other people, and a lack of emotional reciprocity. In his original description of autism, Kanner (1943) already emphasized the presence of emotional impairments, and characterized the patients as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Aim 1. 2. 3. Methods Articles were included in our systematic review if they satisfied the following criteria: Summary.
ERPs Reveal the Time-Course of Aberrant Visual-Phonological Binding in Developmental Dyslexia. Introduction Developmental dyslexia involves impaired reading and writing, in the absence of a more general cognitive impairment (Lyon et al., 2003). Causes of dyslexia remain heavily debated (c.f., Gori and Facoetti, 2014; Norton et al., 2015), but accumulating evidence indicates that difficulty in forming associations between visual-orthographic and corresponding phonological codes is a reliable indicator, which persists into adulthood (Price and Devlin, 2003; Devlin et al., 2006; Shaywitz and Shaywitz, 2008; Hellyer et al., 2011; Kherif et al., 2011; Schurz et al., 2015).
In this study, we examine the temporal dynamics of learned visual-phonological connections using electrophysiological methods. Specifically, we compared the ability of adult typical and dyslexic readers to recognize and respond to highly practiced associations between a printed letter and its name. Evidence from neglect dyslexia for morphological decomposition at the early stages of orthographic-visual analysis. 1. Introduction One of the intriguing questions in the cognitive psychology and neuropsychology of reading relates to how we read words like “segmentation,” “absolutely,” “smiling,” or “kangaroos.” If such morphologically complex words are represented in the orthographic lexicon in a decomposed form, access to the lexicon should use morphologically decomposed codes. To allow for such access, a pre-lexical stage of morphological decomposition is required. Executive functions in developmental dyslexia. Introduction Executive functions (EF) are a set of high cognitive abilities that control and regulate other functions and behaviors (Welsh et al., 1991).
They may involve abilities such as selectively processing information in the environment, retaining task-relevant information in an accessible state over time, making a plan by selecting a sequence of actions to achieve a goal, inhibiting a verbal or motor response, successfully adapting responses to changes in situations and environments, problem solving and self monitoring (Welsh et al., 1991; Pennington and Ozonoff, 1996; Friedman et al., 2006). EF deficits have been described in several developmental disorders. Indeed, deficits in WM have been mainly investigated using span tasks and are considered one of the major defining characteristics of Developmental Dyslexia (DD) (Willcutt et al., 2005; Swanson et al., 2009, 2010; Bacon et al., 2013). Face processing improvements in prosopagnosia: successes and failures over the last 50 years. Introduction Prosopagnosia is a deficit in the ability to perceive and recognize faces, and most commonly results from genetic/developmental causes (up to 1 in 40 developmental prosopagnosics in the general population, Kennerknecht et al., 2006, 2008).
More rarely, prosopagnosia is caused by acquired brain injury that damages occipital-temporal or anterior temporal regions (Barton, 2008). Though developmental and acquired prosopagnosics may have more or less severe perceptual deficits, they all generally have difficulties with building a rich holistic face representation sufficient for face identification (Bukach et al., 2006; Ramon et al., 2010; Avidan et al., 2011; Palermo et al., 2011; DeGutis et al., 2012b). Instead, prosopagnosics attempt to learn and recognize faces using a less effective piecemeal approach, or rely on non-facial cues such as voice and clothing. Functionally distinct contributions of the anterior and posterior putamen during sublexical and lexical reading. Functional neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: the role of orthographic depth. Greater Repertoire and Temporal Variability of Cross-Frequency Coupling (CFC) Modes in Resting-State Neuromagnetic Recordings among Children with Reading Difficulties.
Guidelines and quality measures for the diagnosis of optic ataxia. Introduction Optic ataxia (OA) was first described by Rudolph Bálint in 1909 as a neurological symptom resulting in gross mis-reaching to targets in the peripheral visual field (Balint, 1909). Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children. Induction of neuroplasticity and recovery in post-stroke aphasia by non-invasive brain stimulation. Is the Sensorimotor Cortex Relevant for Speech Perception and Understanding? An Integrative Review. Link between cognitive neuroscience and education: the case of clinical assessment of developmental dyscalculia. Data from evidence based teaching methods and cognitive neuroscience may provide the basis for development of more efficient and precise assessment and intervention tools for cases of learning disabilities (e.g., Sigman et al., 2014). The current review critically examines the need to develop cognitive assessment tools that are based on findings from research in cognitive neuroscience that highlight individual differences among learners.
We use the very important case of mathematics and show the value of basing learning disability assessment tools on: (1) findings from cognitive neuroscience; and (2) the inspection of non-intentional cognitive variables. The Link Between Elemental Number Processing and Mathematical Abilities Human symbolic arithmetical and higher mathematical abilities are unique phenomena, posing a challenge for the disciplines of the neurocognitive sciences and education. Cognitive Neuroscience Methodologies as a Basis for Clinical Assessment Conclusions Acknowledgments. Longitudinal maturation of auditory cortical function during adolescence. Magnocellular-dorsal pathway and sub-lexical route in developmental dyslexia. Mathematical difficulties as decoupling of expectation and developmental trajectories.
Medial Efferent Mechanisms in Children with Auditory Processing Disorders. Misophonia: physiological investigations and case descriptions. Musicians’ Online Performance during Auditory and Visual Statistical Learning Tasks. Neural bases of accented speech perception. Neural entrainment to rhythmic speech in children with developmental dyslexia. Neurobiological, Cognitive, and Emotional Mechanisms in Melodic Intonation Therapy. Neurobiological foundations of multisensory integration in people with autism spectrum disorders: the role of the medial prefrontal cortex. Neuromagnetic Vistas into Typical and Atypical Development of Frontal Lobe Functions. On development of functional brain connectivity in the young brain. Oscillatory “temporal sampling” and developmental dyslexia: toward an over-arching theoretical framework. Prefrontal cortex and executive function in young children: a review of NIRS studies.
Procedural skills and neurobehavioral freedom. Physiologic discrimination of stop consonants relates to phonological skills in pre-readers: a biomarker for subsequent reading ability?† Rhythm perception and production predict reading abilities in developmental dyslexia. Reading into neuronal oscillations in the visual system: implications for developmental dyslexia.
Reading the dyslexic brain: multiple dysfunctional routes revealed by a new meta-analysis of PET and fMRI activation studies. Spatial and temporal attention in developmental dyslexia. Symbiosis of executive and selective attention in working memory. The Beat to Read: A Cross-Lingual Link between Rhythmic Regularity Perception and Reading Skill. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children – What Do We Know? The effects of music listening on pain and stress in the daily life of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. The intergenerational multiple deficit model and the case of dyslexia. The Oscillopathic Nature of Language Deficits in Autism: From Genes to Language Evolution. The rehabilitation of face recognition impairments: a critical review and future directions. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia.
The Role of Rhythm in Speech and Language Rehabilitation: The SEP Hypothesis. The trajectory of gray matter development in Broca’s area is abnormal in people who stutter. The VWFA: it's not just for words anymore. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.
Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates efficiency of reading processes. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism: An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation. Visual Illusions: An Interesting Tool to Investigate Developmental Dyslexia and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Visual processing of multiple elements in the dyslexic brain: evidence for a superior parietal dysfunction. Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia.