Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia. Introduction Developmental Dyslexia (DD) is defined as a specific disability in learning to read adequately despite at least normal intelligence, adequate instruction and socio-cultural opportunities, and the absence of sensory defects in vision and hearing (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
The prevailing views concerning the etiology of DD point to a deficit in encoding, representing and processing speech sounds (Snowling, 2001; Ramus et al., 2003; Ramus and Szenkovits, 2008). However, the question whether these difficulties reveal the core deficit of dyslexia or whether they are manifestations of a more general and basic auditory deficit is controversial. According to Tallal's (1980) hypothesis, children with DD would be impaired in their ability to perceive auditory stimuli that have short duration and occur in rapid succession. A second controversy concerns the selectivity of the auditory processing deficit i.e., its being restricted to brief and rapidly presented stimuli. Basic auditory processing and sensitivity to prosodic structure in children with specific language impairments: a new look at a perceptual hypothesis.
Introduction Specific language impairment (SLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of learning that affects the processing and production of spoken language (Leonard, 2014).
Children with SLI have no obvious hearing or neurological impairments, and no apparent prosocial difficulties, yet they fail to acquire language skills at an age-appropriate rate. A hallmark of SLI is grammatical difficulties, usually described as difficulties with morpho-syntax (see Leonard, 2014, for a recent overview). For example, children with SLI will fail to use inflectional endings appropriately (“She comb her hair”), they will fail to mark tense (“Yesterday I fall down”), and they show poor understanding of syntactic devices like word order, selecting a picture of a fish eating a man for the sentence “The fish is eaten by the man” (see Hsu and Bishop, 2011).
A systematic programme of cross-language research exploring morpho-syntactic, procedural-deficit or exemplar-learning theories has yet to emerge. Methods. Assessing Auditory Processing Deficits in Tinnitus and Hearing Impaired Patients with the Auditory Behavior Questionnaire. Introduction The auditory system transmits sounds from the environment to the auditory cortex where they are processed to produce a perception.
The sound signal, a vibroacoustic wave, is transduced into an electrical train of pulses at the synapses between the hair cells of the Corti organ and the auditory nerve. This interface is a powerful device able to transmit signals from the periphery to the auditory pathway spanning 12 decades in amplitude (120 dB) and 3 decades in frequency (20–20 kHz) (Knipper et al., 2013). This mechano-electrical transduction of sound waves into a train of electrical spikes is completed within 1–4 ms with standard deviation of roughly 0.8 ms, which is even lesser than the corresponding constant time of mammalian visual cells (Kopp-Scheinpflug and Tempel, 2015). Auditory signals are thus reliably transmitted along large diameter axons and across highly specialized synapses through the afferent auditory pathway. Peripheral deficits afford HL or hypoacusis.
Central plasticity and dysfunction elicited by aural deprivation in the critical period. The sense of hearing is a major pathway by which humans use to recognize environment.
Acoustic cues assist humans to engage in neural activities integrated from multiple brain stations, which make constant adjustment of their behavior, such as learning, communication and exercise. Hearing impairment directly affects the recognition of language and social competency among humans. Hearing relies on the signal transmission from the auditory organ to the central auditory system. The central auditory system consists of cochlear nucleus, superior olive nucleus, lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculation body and auditory cortex. Earlier studies suggested connections between different stations of the auditory system which are structurally hard-wired. Plasticity is both structural and functional reorganization of the brain to adapt to ambient changes and physiological changes in the body (Jain et al., 1998; Rittenhouse et al., 1999; Pascual-Leone et al., 2005). Acknowledgments. Early neural disruption and auditory processing outcomes in rodent models: implications for developmental language disability.
Efficacy of Auditory Training in Elderly Subjects. Introduction The structural and functional changes in the auditory system due to aging can limit speech comprehension during difficult listening situations in elderly people (Corso, 1977; Jerger et al., 1989; Willott, 1991; Chisolm et al., 2003; Gates and Mills, 2005).
Medial Efferent Mechanisms in Children with Auditory Processing Disorders. Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA Auditory processing disorder (APD) affects about 2–5% of children.
However, the nature of this disorder is poorly understood. Children with APD typically have difficulties in complex listening situations. One mechanism thought to aid in listening-in-noise is the medial olivocochlear (MOC) inhibition. The purpose of this review was to critically analyze the published data on MOC inhibition in children with APD to determine whether the MOC efferents are involved in these individuals. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia. 1Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Parenting and Special Education Research Unit, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium2Laboratory for Experimental ORL, Department of Neuroscience, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading.
We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks.
Received: 24 December 2013; Accepted: 15 June 2014; Published online: 02 July 2014. Predicting Future Reading Problems Based on Pre-reading Auditory Measures: A Longitudinal Study of Children with a Familial Risk of Dyslexia. Introduction Dyslexia is a hereditary neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent, lifelong reading, and/or spelling impairments that cannot be accounted for by low intelligence or environmental factors (Vellutino et al., 2004).
Recent etiological views of dyslexia have proposed a multi-cognitive deficit model explaining the behavioral traits associated with this disorder (Pennington, 2006). It is theorized that multiple genetic or environmental factors act probabilistically as risk or protective factors. Thus, the interaction of these etiological factors result in the development of the specific cognitive risk or protective factors that increase or decrease the probability of the development of the expressed behavioral symptoms attributed to dyslexia.