Frontiers in Neuroscience. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. Frontiers in Neurology. Altered auditory and multisensory temporal processing in autism spectrum disorders. Leslie D.
A Subset of Autism-Associated Genes Regulate the Structural Stability of Neurons. Introduction Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental clinical condition currently diagnosed based on the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria reflecting symptoms, possibly of varying severity, in social interaction, communication and behavior (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Lord and Jones, 2013).
ASD occurs in 1:68 individuals in the United States (Baio, 2014) and complex genetic interactions appear responsible for a high degree of heterogeneity of the clinical symptoms in ASD. Individuals with ASD often co-express other comorbidities including epilepsy which often complicates diagnosis and treatment. Autism spectrum disorder is typically diagnosed during the first 3 years of life, a period of extensive neurite formation, synaptogenesis and refinement (Huttenlocher and Dabholkar, 1997; Zoghbi and Bear, 2012; Stamou et al., 2013; McGee et al., 2014).
FIGURE 1. TABLE 1. TABLE 2. Cognitive Representation of Human Action: Theory, Applications, and Perspectives. Introduction Motor activities within particular environmental conditions are central dimensions of biological organism since millions of years.
Important stages in evolution are mainly based on the establishment of new functional links between the motor system, related memory structures, and the perception of biological systems. Furthermore, motor actions – such as dance or sports – have always been an important element in all human cultures. Stated in a more dramatic language: “from the motor chauvinist’s point of view the entire purpose of the human brain is to produce movement … [and] all sensory and cognitive processes may be viewed as inputs that determine future motor outputs” [Ref. (1), p. 487].
Consequently, understanding how we plan and control our bodily actions (i.e., the topic of motor control research) is not only of theoretical importance but also has large and diverse practical relevance. Cognitive Representation of Action: A Theoretical Framework Figure 1. Figure 2. 3. Diminished N1 Auditory Evoked Potentials to Oddball Stimuli in Misophonia Patients. Introduction Misophonia is a newly defined psychiatric condition, which is characterized by the hatred of ordinary human sounds (Hadjipavlou et al., 2008; Schwartz et al., 2011; Edelstein et al., 2013; Ferreira and Harrison, 2013; Neal and Cavanna, 2013; Schröder et al., 2013).
The central hallmark of misophonia is an aggressive impulse automatically triggered by sounds, such as breathing, chewing, and eating. To date, there has been no neurophysiological marker linked with this disorder. Such a marker could potentially benefit the recognition of misophonia patients and give directions to further neurophysiological research in this domain. The underlying causes of misophonia are unknown. Early sensory components evoked by auditory stimulation include a positive peak around 50 ms (P50 or P1), a negative peak around 100 ms (N100 or N1), and a positive peak around 200 ms (P200 or P2).
Following gaze: gaze-following behavior as a window into social cognition. In your eyes only: deficits in executive functioning after frontal TMS reflect in eye movements. Metabolic Dysfunction Underlying Autism Spectrum Disorder and Potential Treatment Approaches. Autism Spectrum Disorder—Complex Etiology, Limited Therapies Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in sociability and communication, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests (DiCicco-Bloom et al., 2006; Llaneza et al., 2010; Lai et al., 2014).
The term “spectrum” refers to the wide range of symptoms and levels of impairment that can occur in individuals with ASD. Multimodal Diffusion-MRI and MEG Assessment of Auditory and Language System Development in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Introduction The etiology or, indeed, etiologies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently unknown.
It is hypothesized that alterations to brain structure and function contribute to the clinical symptoms common to ASD. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions. Introduction As the brain develops, particular regions undergo different critical periods of plasticity when their underlying circuits gain heighted sensitivity to experience (1, 2).
Experience during these early temporal periods has a profound effect on the wiring of skills and behaviors, such as language, music playing, visual processing, and emotional processing. When the critical period for a region closes, the adaptations in its circuitry become fixed, locking in adjusted ways of processing and responding to stimuli and bringing plasticity into a latent state.
This mechanism is normally a beneficial way to retain optimized behaviors without need for maintenance or renewal. However, in individuals exposed to inappropriate stimuli, adaptive changes that were helpful during this window of developmental plasticity may not be beneficial in the future and can lead to dysfunctional behavior. Critical Periods Across Brain Functions Critical Period for Visual Cortex Plasticity Figure 1. 3. The Pointing Errors in Optic Ataxia Reveal the Role of “Peripheral Magnification” of the PPC. Introduction Optic ataxia is a rare and singular disease resulting from lesions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC).
Patients with optic ataxia have normal primary motor, proprioceptive, and visual functions but suffer from large visuo-motor dysfunctions (Perenin and Vighetto, 1988; Buxbaum and Coslett, 1998; Battaglia-Mayer and Caminiti, 2002; Jackson et al., 2009). Patients with optic ataxia make large spatial errors when pointing to peripheral targets in the contralesional visual hemifield (Perenin and Vighetto, 1988; Blangero et al., 2008). Previous studies have suggested that these “field effect” errors, observed only when the ipsilesional hand is used, are best expressed in oculo-centric reference coordinates (Khan et al., 2005a,b; Dijkerman et al., 2006).
While electrophysiology and brain imaging can demonstrate that a given structure contains information for ‘vision for action,’ brain lesions establish its crucial contribution to the processes of visuo-motor control. Subjects. Update on the implication of potassium channels in autism: K+ channelautism spectrum disorder. Introduction Nearly 70 million people worldwide suffer from ASD. 700,000 are from USA and the estimated cost to society of caring for these children has been $11.5 billion in 2011 (Lavelle et al., 2014).
ASD is a group of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders previously dealt with as single pathologies: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder also known as Heller syndrome, and Rett syndrome. The relative risk for a child to develop the disease is increased ~25-fold in families in which a sibling is affected (Jorde et al., 1991).
Unfortunately, the genetic etiology of autism is characterized by high locus heterogeneity, where de novo and rare inherited CNVs and SNV mutations in conjunction contribute to the overall genetic risk to develop the disease. Voltage-Gated K+ Channels Kv4.2 – ChannelASD Kv4.2 – ChannelASD linked to Fragile X syndrome Kv7.3 – ChannelASD TABLE 1. TABLE 2. White Matter Microstructure is Associated with Auditory and Tactile Processing in Children with and without Sensory Processing Disorder. Why the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Matters. 1Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Division, Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA 2Neuroscience Program, Pappajohn Biomedical Institute, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and challenging childhood neurobehavioral disorders.
ADHD is known to negatively impact children, their families, and their community. About one-third to one-half of patients with ADHD will have persistent symptoms into adulthood. The prevalence in the United States is estimated at 5–11%, representing 6.4 million children nationwide. The variability in the prevalence of ADHD worldwide and within the US may be due to the wide range of factors that affect accurate assessment of children and youth. Objectives: We examined factors associated with making and receiving the diagnosis of ADHD.