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Welcome to Principia Cybernetica Web

Welcome to Principia Cybernetica Web

Distributed economy Distributed economies (DE) is a term that was coined by Allan Johansson et al. in 2005.[1] Definition[edit] There is no official definition for DE, but it could be described as a regional approach to promote innovation by small and medium sized enterprises, as well as sustainable development. The concept is illustrated in the figure below, that shows centralised, decentralised and distributed economies respectively. Dunning–Kruger effect Cognitive bias about one's own skill The Dunning–Kruger effect is a hypothetical cognitive bias stating that people with low ability at a task overestimate their own ability, and that people with high ability at a task underestimate their own ability. As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the bias results from an internal illusion in people of low ability and from an external misperception in people of high ability; that is, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others".[1] It is related to the cognitive bias of illusory superiority and comes from people's inability to recognize their lack of ability. Without the self-awareness of metacognition, people cannot objectively evaluate their level of competence.

Systems - A Journey Along the Way Systems A Journey Along theWay Welcome to a journey in the realm of systems. The Problem of Economic Calculation - Ludwig von Mises Since recent events helped socialist parties to obtain power in Russia, Hungary, Germany and Austria, and have thus made the execution of a socialist nationalization program a topical issue, Marxist writers have themselves begun to deal more closely with the problems of the regulation of the socialist commonwealth. But even now they still cautiously avoid the crucial question, leaving it to be tackled by the despised "Utopians." They themselves prefer to confine their attention to what is to be done in the immediate future; they are forever drawing up programs of the path to Socialism and not of Socialism itself.

Wicked Problems If you work in an organisation that deals with social, commercial or financial planning - or any type of public policy planning - then you've got wicked problems. You may not call them by this name, but you know what they are. They are those complex, ever changing societal and organisational planning problems that you haven't been able to treat with much success, because they won't keep still. Ludwig von Bertalanffy, General System Theory (1968) The Quest for a General System Theory There exist models, principles, and laws that apply to generalized systems or their subclasses, irrespective of their particular kind, the nature of their component elements, and the relation or 'forces' between them. It seems legitimate to ask for a theory, not of systems of a more or less special kind, but of universal principles applying to systems in general.

Ecological Economics : A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services SPECIAL ISSUE: The Dynamics and Value of Ecosystem Services: Integrating Economic and Ecological Perspectives a International Center for Integrative Studies (ICIS), Maastricht University and Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 616, NL-6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlandsb Center for Environmental Studies, Institute for Ecological Economics, University of Maryland, USA Available online 9 May 2002 Choose an option to locate/access this article: Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution Check access

Wicked problem "Wicked problem" is a phrase originally used in social planning to describe a problem that is difficult or impossible to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize. The term "wicked" is used to denote resistance to resolution, rather than evil.[1] Moreover, because of complex interdependencies, the effort to solve one aspect of a wicked problem may reveal or create other problems. C. West Churchman introduced the concept of wicked problems in a "Guest Editorial" of Management Science (Vol. 14, No. 4, December 1967) by referring to "a recent seminar" by Professor Horst Rittel, and discussing the moral responsibility of operations research "to inform the manager in what respect our 'solutions' have failed to tame his wicked problems".

Types of Systems - SEBoK This article forms part of the knowledge area (KA). It provides various perspectives on classifications and types of systems, expanded from the definitions presented in . The modern world has numerous kinds of systems that influence daily life. Some examples include transport systems; solar systems; telephone systems; the Dewey Decimal System; weapons systems; ecological systems; space systems; etc. Indeed, it seems there is almost no end to the use of the word “system” in today’s society. This article considers the different classification systems which some authors have proposed in an attempt to extract some general from these multiple occurrences.

Unfluence The Unfluence site constructs maps of the funding relations between groups of candidates and donors. The data comes from candidates' required disclosures, collected and made available to the public by the National Institute on Money in State Politics (NIMSP). The basic idea is to help people understand the context of political giving, and the relative positions of various candidates in terms of who is paying for their campaign. A query is generated from the initial search settings and sent to NIMSP's API which looks in their databases and returns a list of matching candidates as an xml file. For each candidate it retrieves a list of the top contributors, and discards any with contributions below the value threshold set in the beginning. This donor-recipient information is formatted into a network and passed to GraphViz that computes positions for the nodes and draws it (with help from ImageMagik).

Reflexive Pedagogy Over the past few months, we at ProfHacker have written articles about class/course assessment and how important it is to get students’ input in class evaluations. Certainly, course evaluations contain important information for the instructor and the university, but they rarely measure what the students actually learned in that course. We can use traditional methods of evaluation to gauge what students have learned, and that helps us (giving tests, assigning grades).

Systems Classifications From SystemsWiki There are multiple ways of characterizing systems. Of those I have come to understand to date, several of the most useful are as follows.