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Mimivirus is a viral genus containing a single identified species named Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV), or is a group of phylogenetically related large viruses (designated usually MimiN). [ 1 ] In colloquial speech, APMV is more commonly referred to as just "mimivirus". Until October 2011, when a larger virus Megavirus chilensis was described, it had the largest capsid diameter of all known viruses. [ 2 ] Mimivirus has a large and complex genome compared with most other viruses. Mimivirus, short for "mimicking microbe", is so called to reflect its large size and apparent Gram-staining properties. [ 3 ] [ edit ] Discovery APMV was discovered serendipitously in 1992 within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga , after which it is named, during research into Legionellosis . The virus was observed in a gram stain and mistakenly thought to be a gram-positive bacterium .
Just how interconnected are we? The work of biologist Lynn Margulis and writer Dorion Sagan indicates we’re interconnected in ways few of us have probably ever considered. In fact, instead of viewing ourselves as the pinnacle of evolution, it may be more accurate to think of ourselves as a colony of closely associated bacteria. Carla Cole based the following on the work of Lynn Margulis and Dorion Sagan, including an article of theirs, The Parts: Power to the Protoctists, which appeared in the September/October 1992 issue of Earthwatch .
Social behavior can be found on almost every level of life, ranging from microorganisms to human societies. However, explaining the evolutionary emergence of cooperation, communication, or competition still challenges modern biology. The most common approaches to this problem are based on game-theoretic models. The problem is that these models often assume fixed and limited rules and actions that individual agents can choose from, which excludes the dynamical nature of the mechanisms that underlie the behavior of living systems. So far, there exists a lack of convincing modeling approaches to investigate the emergence of social behavior from a mechanistic and evolutionary perspective. Instead of studying animals, the methodology, we employ, combines several aspects from alternative approaches to study behavior in a rather novel way.
Over the past decade there has been a growing public fascination with the complex "connectedness" of modern society. This connectedness is found in many incarnations: in the rapid growth of the Internet and the Web, in the ease with which global communication now takes place, and in the ability of news and information as well as epidemics and financial crises to spread around the world with surprising speed and intensity. These are phenomena that involve networks, incentives, and the aggregate behavior of groups of people; they are based on the links that connect us and the ways in which each of our decisions can have subtle consequences for the outcomes of everyone else. Networks, Crowds, and Markets combines different scientific perspectives in its approach to understanding networks and behavior.
Edgar Morin è uno dei maggiori filosofi contemporanei. Direttore emerito di ricerca al CNRS (Francia). Presidente dell'Associazione per il pensiero complesso (Parigi, Francia). Titolare della Cattedra itinerante Edgar Morin (UNESCO).
Brief introduction to the theme Crystal & Flame As the twilight of the first decade of the new millennium fades and is followed by the emerging dawn of the second, the themes, values and observations identified by the writer I talo Calvino in 1985 as Six Memos for the Next Millennium (posthumously published in 1988, Harvard University Press), continue to offer us insightful guidance and inspiration. The Crystal & Flame is one of these cross-disciplinary, paradoxical and metaphorical themes. It offers a richly diverse history and new inspiring perspectives for the imagination, poetically evoked in the intermingling and catalytic Inhibition & Excitation of synaptic firing process-patterns that allows for thought and reflection on and through our embodied consciousness.
The Zachman Framework of Enterprise Architecture The Zachman Framework is an Enterprise Architecture framework for enterprise architecture , which provides a formal and highly structured way of viewing and defining an enterprise. It consists of a two dimensional classification matrix based on the intersection of six communication questions (What, Where, When, Why, Who and How) with six levels of reification , successively transforming the abstract ideas on the Scope level into concrete instantiations of those ideas at the Operations level. [ 1 ]
This paper brought together a number of subjects, in an early, almost extended outline. The sections of this paper provide starting positions for several subjects that will be further explored in enterprisography. Full paper can be downloaded from here . This paper explores the subject of enterprise-wide information systems in terms of how they support business organizations as living, cognitive human social systems. It questions whether the autopoietic definition of living systems truly applies to human social systems, and it proposes a formal definition of the human social system, incorporating the notion of the meme. It further draws on the systemic concepts of the living systems model, the viable systems model, and a cognitive model of the human brain, to suggest a conceptual architecture of enterprise information systems.
Robert J. Lang has been an avid student of origami for over forty years and is now recognized as one of the world’s leading masters of the art, with over 500 designs catalogued and diagrammed. He is noted for designs of great detail and realism, and includes in his repertoire some of the most complex origami designs ever created. His work combines aspects of the Western school of mathematical origami design with the Eastern emphasis upon line and form to yield models that are at once distinctive, elegant, and challenging to fold.
창발Emergence 관련 논문과 저작들 ― 마음/의식과 관련하여 (계속 수정 증보 중입니다 ― 2007. 06. 10.일요일. 16:44 현재) Emergence in Philosophy and Science: An Extended Bibliography (last updated June 10, 2007) assembled and compiled by Yoon ScinCh-nW-k (qualia) from South Korea
e Cunha Miguel Pina a , 1 , Author Vitae , Arménio Rego b , , Author Vitae a Faculdade de Economia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua Marquês de Fronteira, 20, 1099-038 Lisboa, Portugal b Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Economia, Gestão e Engenharia Industrial, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal Available online 28 May 2009
Coping with the complexity of today’s business environment is not about predicting the future or reducing risk. It’s about building the capacity, in yourself, your people, and the organization to adapt continuously and learn speedily, in order to maximize the chances of seizing fleeting opportunities. These authors’ excellent suggestions will help today’s leaders cope with complexity.
Jan Burian burianj (at) vse.cz You can find here: Basic introduction to Complex Systems Science and relevant modeling tools Many links to web resources and a list of relevant literature " Complex systems " (4IZ636), lecture on University of Economics, Prague Content Intuitive definitions of complexity
The growth process of networks. Left: In the beginning, only a few elements join to form many small networks. Middle: In the intermediate phase, several mid-sized networks have been created. Right: In the end, almost all elements are connected in one large network.