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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics
Solution to Schrödinger's equation for the hydrogen atom at different energy levels. The brighter areas represent a higher probability of finding an electron. Quantum mechanics gradually arose from Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem (reported 1859) and Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which offered a quantum-based theory to explain the photoelectric effect (reported 1887). Early quantum theory was profoundly reconceived in the mid-1920s. The reconceived theory is formulated in various specially developed mathematical formalisms. In one of them, a mathematical function, the wave function, provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. History[edit] In 1838, Michael Faraday discovered cathode rays. In 1896, Wilhelm Wien empirically determined a distribution law of black-body radiation,[5] known as Wien's law in his honor. Max Planck is considered the father of the quantum theory. , and FAQs

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Quantum cryptography Quantum cryptography uses our current knowledge of physics to develop a cryptosystem that is not able to be defeated - that is, one that is completely secure against being compromised without knowledge of the sender or the receiver of the messages. The word quantum itself refers to the most fundamental behavior of the smallest particles of matter and energy: quantum theory explains everything that exists and nothing can be in violation of it. Quantum cryptography is different from traditional cryptographic systems in that it relies more on physics, rather than mathematics, as a key aspect of its security model.

Scientists Report Teleportation of Physical Objects From One Location To Another The concept of teleportation comes primarily from science fiction literature throughout human history, but things are changing. It’s 2015 and developments in quantum theory and general relativity physics have been successful in exploring the concept of teleportation for quite some time now. Today, numerous teleportation breakthroughs have been made. One example is the work of Professor Rainer Blatt, at the University of Innsbruck. They were successfully able to perform teleportation on atoms for the first time, their work was published in the journal Nature.(1) They were able to transfer key properties of one particle to another without using any physical link. In this case, teleportation occurred in the form of transferring quantum states between two atoms, these include the atom’s energy, motion, magnetic field and other physical properties.

Biefeld–Brown effect There is renewed focus on the Biefield–Brown effect with the spread in interest in high-voltage powered experimental flying devices known as ionocraft or lifters.[citation needed] Effect analysis[edit] Classical field theory A physical field can be thought of as the assignment of a physical quantity at each point of space and time. For example, in a weather forecast, the wind velocity during a day over a country is described by assigning a vector to each point in space. Each vector represents the direction of the movement of air at that point.

The Phenomenon Of Light Generation Through The Crushing Of Materials Is Called? Answer: Triboluminescence The word might sound rather scientific, and maybe a little alien in nature (“triboluminescence” does sound a whole lot like a problem the crew of the Enterprise might run into, after all), but it’s a down-to-Earth phenomenon you may have even experienced yourself. Triboluminescence is light created when crushing, tearing, or other mechanical action triggers the breakdown of chemical bonds in a material (or when peeling adhesive tapes). A popular classroom demonstration of this phenomenon, for example, is to give students rolls of Wint-O-Green Mint Lifesaver candies, enter a darkened room, and then have the students—much to their delight—throw tons of the candies into their mouths and chomp on them vigorously with their mouths open.

New Discovery in Particle Physics Raises Hope for a "Theory of Everything" The standard model of particle physics, which describes every particle we know of and how they interact, was given much credence when the Higgs boson was discovered in 2012. Now, measurements of a rare particle-physics decay at the Large Hadron Collider offer further support for the model – but also hints at ways to find out what lies beyond it. The standard model is cherished by physicists because it can explain most of the fundamental phenomena in nature by referencing just a handful of elementary particles. The elementary particles that according to the standard model makes up matter. By HolgerFiedler nach Benutzer:Murphee via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA These particles include quarks (one of the components of an atom) and electron-like particles called leptons – along with their so-called antiparticles which are identical but have opposite charge.

Dirac equation In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its free form, or including electromagnetic interactions, it describes all spin-½ massive particles, for which parity is a symmetry, such as electrons and quarks, and is consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity,[1] and was the first theory to account fully for special relativity in the context of quantum mechanics. Although Dirac did not at first fully appreciate the importance of his results, the entailed explanation of spin as a consequence of the union of quantum mechanics and relativity—and the eventual discovery of the positron—represent one of the great triumphs of theoretical physics.

First quantization A first quantization of a physical system is a semi-classical treatment of quantum mechanics, in which particles or physical objects are treated using quantum wave functions but the surrounding environment (for example a potential well or a bulk electromagnetic field or gravitational field) is treated classically. First quantization is appropriate for studying a single quantum-mechanical system being controlled by a laboratory apparatus that is itself large enough that classical mechanics is applicable to most of the apparatus. Theoretical background[edit] The starting point is the notion of quantum states and the observables of the system under consideration.

Better Nuclear Power Through Ping Pong The lab is deep-space quiet. A long, narrow hallway hung with fluorescent lights extends to my left. Four or five doors interrupt the flow of drywall. A few of those doors are open, the occupants of the rooms within now out in the hall and staring, ears plugged in anticipation. What is quantum superposition Quantum matter can be difficult to study. While physicists have come a long way in the research of this microscopic science, some things are still a mystery because quantum matter can behave so erratically. Einstein's theory of relativity and various other laws of physics tend to fall apart at the subatomic level of quantum physics, because photons -- or tiny particles of light -- seem to change form randomly, and possibly change simply in observation. Niels Bohr, a famous Danish physicist, proposed the Copenhagen interpretation, which revolves around quantum superposition.

Theory of Everything: Unifying Gravity and Quantum Mechanics Earth: The Blue Marble Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/Reto Stöckli Quantum mechanics may seem like it is beyond our realm of experience; however, it is an integral part of the physics that governs our lives. Although it feels like we are only interacting with things that are rather large–things that we can see and feel–every second, our bodies are dancing through a sea of tiny particles. In fact, we are a part of this sea of microscopic particles. Ultracapacitors Make City Buses Cheaper, Greener ( -- A fleet of 17 buses near Shanghai has been running on ultracapacitors for the past three years, and today that technology is coming to the Washington, DC, for a one-day demonstration. Chinese company Shanghai Aowei Technology Development Company, along with its US partner Sinautec Automobile Technologies, predict that this approach will provide an inexpensive and energy efficient way to power city buses in the near future. The biggest advantage of ultracapacitors is that they can fully recharge in less than a minute, unlike lithium-ion batteries which can take several hours. The downside of ultracapacitors is that they currently have a very short range, providing a distance of only a few miles, due to the fact that ultracapacitors can store only about 5% of the energy that lithium-ion batteries can hold.

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