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Kinetic isotope effect. Muons take kinetic isotope effects to extremes.

Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics. In advanced topics of quantum mechanics, some of these behaviors are macroscopic (see macroscopic quantum phenomena) and emerge at only extreme (i.e., very low or very high) energies or temperatures (such as in the use of superconducting magnets). For example, the angular momentum of an electron bound to an atom or molecule is quantized. In contrast, the angular momentum of an unbound electron is not quantized. In the context of quantum mechanics, the wave–particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons, and other atomic-scale objects. The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. Dirac equation. In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.

Dirac equation

In its free form, or including electromagnetic interactions, it describes all spin-½ massive particles, for which parity is a symmetry, such as electrons and quarks, and is consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity,[1] and was the first theory to account fully for special relativity in the context of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle sets limits on Einstein's 'spooky action at a distance,' new research finds. Researchers have uncovered a fundamental link between the two defining properties of quantum physics.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle sets limits on Einstein's 'spooky action at a distance,' new research finds

Stephanie Wehner of Singapore's Centre for Quantum Technologies and the National University of Singapore and Jonathan Oppenheim of the United Kingdom's University of Cambridge published their work today in the latest edition of the journal Science. The result is being heralded as a dramatic breakthrough in our basic understanding of quantum mechanics and provides new clues to researchers seeking to understand the foundations of quantum theory. The result addresses the question of why quantum behaviour is as weird as it is—but no weirder. The strange behaviour of quantum particles, such as atoms, electrons and the photons that make up light, has perplexed scientists for nearly a century. Albert Einstein was among those who thought the quantum world was so strange that quantum theory must be wrong, but experiments have borne out the theory's predictions.

Explore further: Quantum melting. [1004.2507] The uncertainty principle determines the non-locality of quantum mechanics. Some Frequently Asked Questions About Virtual Particles. [Physics FAQ] - [Copyright] Original by Matt McIrvin 1994.

Some Frequently Asked Questions About Virtual Particles

Contents: What are virtual particles? How can they be responsible for attractive forces? Do they violate energy conservation? Do they go faster than light?

Energy generation

Fuels and thrusters. Electromagnetic Propulsion Ships, Submarines: patents & articles. Biefeld–Brown effect. There is renewed focus on the Biefield–Brown effect with the spread in interest in high-voltage powered experimental flying devices known as ionocraft or lifters.

Biefeld–Brown effect

[citation needed] Effect analysis[edit] The effect is generally believed to rely on corona discharge, which allows air molecules to become ionized near sharp points and edges. Usually, two electrodes are used with a high voltage between them, ranging from a few kilovolts and up to megavolt levels, where one electrode is small or sharp, and the other larger and smoother. The most effective distance between electrodes occurs at an electric potential gradient of about 10 kV/cm, which is just below the nominal breakdown voltage of air between two sharp points, at a current density level usually referred to as the saturated corona current condition.

Electrodynamic Space Thruster. Patent Pending PCT/IB2010/052975 1.

Electrodynamic Space Thruster

Presentation The Electrodynamic Space Thruster is a propulsion system designed by Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. in order to produce propulsive force in the outer space, using a sequenced pattern of phase-shifted electric oscillations, similarly to a linear AC motor, running much faster, creating sideway electrodynamic drag, consequently, producing an astonishing acceleration without infringing the classical laws of physics (action-reaction, action-at-a-distance). Fischer–Tropsch process. The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.

Fischer–Tropsch process

It was first developed by Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch at the "Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Kohlenforschung" in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany in 1925. The process, a key component of gas to liquids technology, produces a synthetic lubrication oil and synthetic fuel, typically from coal, natural gas, or biomass.[1] The Fischer–Tropsch process has received intermittent attention as a source of low-sulfur diesel fuel and to address the supply or cost of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. [edit] Fischer-Tropsch Archive. How to turn seawater into jet fuel - tech - 18 August 2009. Faced with global warming and potential oil shortages, the US navy is experimenting with making jet fuel from seawater.

How to turn seawater into jet fuel - tech - 18 August 2009

Navy chemists have processed seawater into unsaturated short-chain hydrocarbons that with further refining could be made into kerosene-based jet fuel. But they will have to find a clean energy source to power the reactions if the end product is to be carbon neutral. The process involves extracting carbon dioxide dissolved in the water and combining it with hydrogen – obtained by splitting water molecules using electricity – to make a hydrocarbon fuel.

Syngas process It uses a variant of a chemical reaction called the Fischer-Tropsch process, which is used commercially to produce a gasoline-like hydrocarbon fuel from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen often derived from coal. But CO2's abundance, combined with concerns about global warming, make it an attractive potential feedstock, Dorner says. Iron catalyst Appealing source. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis. In general, there are two approaches to the production of substitutes for crude petroleum. In one of these, the organic material is heated at high temperatures under a high pressure of hydrogen. In the other approach, the organic material is converted to a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas) and this syngas is converted to hydrocarbons by conversion over suitable catalysts. The papers included in the present volume are concerned with the indirect liquefaction approach.

Energy storage

Ultracapacitors Make City Buses Cheaper, Greener. ( -- A fleet of 17 buses near Shanghai has been running on ultracapacitors for the past three years, and today that technology is coming to the Washington, DC, for a one-day demonstration.

Ultracapacitors Make City Buses Cheaper, Greener

Chinese company Shanghai Aowei Technology Development Company, along with its US partner Sinautec Automobile Technologies, predict that this approach will provide an inexpensive and energy efficient way to power city buses in the near future. The biggest advantage of ultracapacitors is that they can fully recharge in less than a minute, unlike lithium-ion batteries which can take several hours. The downside of ultracapacitors is that they currently have a very short range, providing a distance of only a few miles, due to the fact that ultracapacitors can store only about 5% of the energy that lithium-ion batteries can hold.

Although their short range makes ultracapacitors impractical for cars, city buses have to stop frequently anyway. More information: Sinautec via: Technology Review.

Ravinto ja vaikutus

Mitä maito on? Maito on biologinen raaka-aine, jonka ominaisuuksia ei voida selittää pelkästään sen kemiallisen koostumuksen perusteella.

Mitä maito on?

Maidon fysikaalinen rakenne ja maidon sisältämien aineosien keskinäinen vuorovaikutus säätelevät maidon käyttäytymistä eri olosuhteissa. Maidon parissa työskentelevän on tärkeä tuntea käsittelemänsä raaka-aineen ominaisuudet ja prosessoinnin vaikutukset maitoon riippumatta siitä, missä tehtävissä maidon jalostusketjussa työskentelee. FEDIOL.