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The kinetic isotope effect ( KIE ) is the ratio of reaction rates of two different isotopically labeled molecules in a chemical reaction . It is also called "isotope fractionation," although this term is somewhat broader in meaning. A KIE involving a lighter and a heavier isotope is represented as:
Quantum mechanics (QM – also known as quantum physics , or quantum theory ) is a branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at microscopic scales, where the action is on the order of the Planck constant . Quantum mechanics departs from classical mechanics primarily at the quantum realm of atomic and subatomic length scales. Quantum mechanics provides a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter . In advanced topics of quantum mechanics, some of these behaviors are macroscopic and only emerge at extreme (i.e., very low or very high) energies or temperatures . [ citation needed ] The name quantum mechanics derives from the observation that some physical quantities can change only in discrete amounts (Latin quanta ), and not in a continuous ( cf. analog ) way.
In particle physics , the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation formulated by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. It describes fields corresponding to elementary spin-½ particles (such as the electron ) as a vector of four complex numbers (a bispinor ), in contrast to the Schrödinger equation which described a field of only one complex value. The Dirac equation is consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity , [ 1 ] and was the first theory to account fully for relativity in the context of quantum mechanics.
Attaining strong than quantum non-locality would require us to break the uncertainty principle -- but then there is no telling what may be unleashed! Credit: Illustration by Frans Bartels, concept by Haw Jing Yan. Researchers have uncovered a fundamental link between the two defining properties of quantum physics. Stephanie Wehner of Singapore's Centre for Quantum Technologies and the National University of Singapore and Jonathan Oppenheim of the United Kingdom's University of Cambridge published their work today in the latest edition of the journal Science . The result is being heralded as a dramatic breakthrough in our basic understanding of quantum mechanics and provides new clues to researchers seeking to understand the foundations of quantum theory .
[Physics FAQ] - [Copyright] Original by Matt McIrvin 1994. Contents: What are virtual particles? How can they be responsible for attractive forces? Do they violate energy conservation? Do they go faster than light?
heisenberg uncertainty principle, propulsive and attractive interaction of charged particles by Nov 28
fuels and thrusters
The Biefeld–Brown effect is an electrical effect that produces an ionic wind that transfers its momentum to surrounding neutral particles, first discovered by Paul Alfred Biefeld ( Germany ) and Thomas Townsend Brown ( USA ). The effect is more widely referred to as electrohydrodynamics (EHD) or sometimes electro-fluid-dynamics , a counterpart to the well-known magnetohydrodynamics . Extensive research was performed during the 1950s and 1960s on the use of this electric propulsion effect during the publicized era of the United States gravity control propulsion research (1955–1974) .
Patent Pending PCT/IB2010/052975 1. Presentation The Electrodynamic Space Thruster is a propulsion system designed by Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. in order to produce propulsive force in the outer space, using a sequenced pattern of phase-shifted electric oscillations, similarly to a linear AC motor , running much faster, creating sideway electrodynamic drag, consequently, producing an astonishing acceleration without infringing the classical laws of physics (action-reaction, action-at-a-distance).
The Fischer–Tropsch process , or Fischer–Tropsch synthesis, is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons . The process, a key component of gas to liquids technology, produces a synthetic lubrication oil and synthetic fuel , typically from coal , natural gas , or biomass . [ 1 ] The Fischer–Tropsch process has received intermittent attention as a source of low-sulfur diesel fuel and to address the supply or cost of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. [ edit ] Process chemistry The Fischer–Tropsch process involves a series of chemical reactions that produce a variety of hydrocarbon molecules according to the formula (C n H (2n+2) ). The more useful reactions produce alkanes as follows: (2 n + 1) H 2 + n CO → C n H (2 n +2) + n H 2 O
Faced with global warming and potential oil shortages, the US navy is experimenting with making jet fuel from seawater. Navy chemists have processed seawater into unsaturated short-chain hydrocarbons that with further refining could be made into kerosene-based jet fuel. But they will have to find a clean energy source to power the reactions if the end product is to be carbon neutral. The process involves extracting carbon dioxide dissolved in the water and combining it with hydrogen – obtained by splitting water molecules using electricity – to make a hydrocarbon fuel. Syngas process It uses a variant of a chemical reaction called the Fischer-Tropsch process, which is used commercially to produce a gasoline-like hydrocarbon fuel from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen often derived from coal.
Buses with ultracapacitors stop at recharging stations, which double as bus stops, to recharge in less than a minute. Image credit: Sinautec. (PhysOrg.com) -- A fleet of 17 buses near Shanghai has been running on ultracapacitors for the past three years, and today that technology is coming to the Washington, DC, for a one-day demonstration. Chinese company Shanghai Aowei Technology Development Company, along with its US partner Sinautec Automobile Technologies, predict that this approach will provide an inexpensive and energy efficient way to power city buses in the near future.
ravinto ja vaikutus
Maito on biologinen raaka-aine, jonka ominaisuuksia ei voida selittää pelkästään sen kemiallisen koostumuksen perusteella. Maidon fysikaalinen rakenne ja maidon sisältämien aineosien keskinäinen vuorovaikutus säätelevät maidon käyttäytymistä eri olosuhteissa. Maidon parissa työskentelevän on tärkeä tuntea käsittelemänsä raaka-aineen ominaisuudet ja prosessoinnin vaikutukset maitoon riippumatta siitä, missä tehtävissä maidon jalostusketjussa työskentelee. Maidon mikrobiologian ja kemian opiskelu muodostavat keskeisen osan meijerialan ammattilaisten opinnoista. Esimakua tulevista opinnoista saat tästä tutustumalla maidon mikrobiologiaan , kemiaan ja fysikaalisiin ominaisuuksiin.
Bioenergia hillitsee ilmastonmuutosta Voit itse vaikuttaa ilmastonmuutokseen Tarvitsemme energiaa. Suomessa on suuret bioenergian lisäkäyttömahdollisuudet.