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Kinetic isotope effect. Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) refers to the change in the rate of a chemical reaction upon substitution of an atom in the reactants with one of its isotopes.

Kinetic isotope effect

Formally, it is defined as the ratio of rate constants for the reactions involving the light (kL) and the heavy (kH) isotopically substituted reactants: For example, in the following nucleophilic substitution reaction of methyl bromide with cyanide, the kinetic isotope effect of the methyl carbon, in this case defined as k12/k13, was found to be 1.082 ± 0.008.[1][2] Muons take kinetic isotope effects to extremes.

Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics. In advanced topics of quantum mechanics, some of these behaviors are macroscopic (see macroscopic quantum phenomena) and emerge at only extreme (i.e., very low or very high) energies or temperatures (such as in the use of superconducting magnets). For example, the angular momentum of an electron bound to an atom or molecule is quantized. In contrast, the angular momentum of an unbound electron is not quantized. In the context of quantum mechanics, the wave–particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons, and other atomic-scale objects.

The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. Dirac equation. In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.

Dirac equation

In its free form, or including electromagnetic interactions, it describes all spin-½ massive particles, for which parity is a symmetry, such as electrons and quarks, and is consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity,[1] and was the first theory to account fully for special relativity in the context of quantum mechanics. Although Dirac did not at first fully appreciate the importance of his results, the entailed explanation of spin as a consequence of the union of quantum mechanics and relativity—and the eventual discovery of the positron—represent one of the great triumphs of theoretical physics.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle sets limits on Einstein's 'spooky action at a distance,' new research finds. Researchers have uncovered a fundamental link between the two defining properties of quantum physics.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle sets limits on Einstein's 'spooky action at a distance,' new research finds

Stephanie Wehner of Singapore's Centre for Quantum Technologies and the National University of Singapore and Jonathan Oppenheim of the United Kingdom's University of Cambridge published their work today in the latest edition of the journal Science. The result is being heralded as a dramatic breakthrough in our basic understanding of quantum mechanics and provides new clues to researchers seeking to understand the foundations of quantum theory. The result addresses the question of why quantum behaviour is as weird as it is—but no weirder.

The strange behaviour of quantum particles, such as atoms, electrons and the photons that make up light, has perplexed scientists for nearly a century. [1004.2507] The uncertainty principle determines the non-locality of quantum mechanics. Some Frequently Asked Questions About Virtual Particles. [Physics FAQ] - [Copyright] Original by Matt McIrvin 1994.

Some Frequently Asked Questions About Virtual Particles

Contents: What are virtual particles? How can they be responsible for attractive forces? Do they violate energy conservation? Do they go faster than light?

Energy generation

Fuels and thrusters. Electromagnetic Propulsion Ships, Submarines: patents & articles. Biefeld–Brown effect. During 1964, Major Alexander Procofieff de Seversky published much of his related work in U.S.

Biefeld–Brown effect

Patent 3,130,945, and with the aim to forestall any possible misunderstanding about these devices, termed these flying machines as ionocraft. [citation needed] In the following years, many promising concepts were abandoned due to technological limitations. Electrodynamic Space Thruster. Patent Pending PCT/IB2010/052975 1.

Electrodynamic Space Thruster

Presentation The Electrodynamic Space Thruster is a propulsion system designed by Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. in order to produce propulsive force in the outer space, using a sequenced pattern of phase-shifted electric oscillations, similarly to a linear AC motor, running much faster, creating sideway electrodynamic drag, consequently, producing an astonishing acceleration without infringing the classical laws of physics (action-reaction, action-at-a-distance). Fischer–Tropsch process. The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.

Fischer–Tropsch process

It was first developed by Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch at the "Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Kohlenforschung" in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany in 1925. The process, a key component of gas to liquids technology, produces a synthetic lubrication oil and synthetic fuel, typically from coal, natural gas, or biomass.[1] The Fischer–Tropsch process has received intermittent attention as a source of low-sulfur diesel fuel and to address the supply or cost of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons.

[edit] The Fischer–Tropsch process involves a series of chemical reactions that produce a variety of hydrocarbons, ideally having the formula (CnH(2n+2)). The more useful reactions produce alkanes as follows: Fischer-Tropsch Archive. How to turn seawater into jet fuel - tech - 18 August 2009. Faced with global warming and potential oil shortages, the US navy is experimenting with making jet fuel from seawater.

How to turn seawater into jet fuel - tech - 18 August 2009

Navy chemists have processed seawater into unsaturated short-chain hydrocarbons that with further refining could be made into kerosene-based jet fuel. But they will have to find a clean energy source to power the reactions if the end product is to be carbon neutral. The process involves extracting carbon dioxide dissolved in the water and combining it with hydrogen – obtained by splitting water molecules using electricity – to make a hydrocarbon fuel. Syngas process. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis.

Energy storage

Ultracapacitors Make City Buses Cheaper, Greener. (PhysOrg.com) -- A fleet of 17 buses near Shanghai has been running on ultracapacitors for the past three years, and today that technology is coming to the Washington, DC, for a one-day demonstration.

Ultracapacitors Make City Buses Cheaper, Greener

Chinese company Shanghai Aowei Technology Development Company, along with its US partner Sinautec Automobile Technologies, predict that this approach will provide an inexpensive and energy efficient way to power city buses in the near future. The biggest advantage of ultracapacitors is that they can fully recharge in less than a minute, unlike lithium-ion batteries which can take several hours. The downside of ultracapacitors is that they currently have a very short range, providing a distance of only a few miles, due to the fact that ultracapacitors can store only about 5% of the energy that lithium-ion batteries can hold.

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