IoHT :: 110+ Variations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics Questions about these second law variations? Know of other second law definitions? Copyright © Institute of Human Thermodynamics and IoHT Publishing Ltd. All Rights Reserved  Hippocrates (c. 440 BC).  Lavoisier, A. (1789). [3-4] Carnot, S. (1824). [5-8] Clausius, R. (1850).  Kelvin, L. (1852).  Kelvin, L. (1852).  Kelvin, L. (1852).  Kelvin, L. (1852).  Kelvin, L. (1852). the Philosophical Magazine, October, 1852; also Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. i, art. 59.  Clausius, R. (1865).  Kelvin & Planck. (1879). [16-17] Planck.  Caratheodory, C. (1908). [19-21] Fermi, E. (1936). [22-23] Bridgman, P. (1941).  Keenan, J. (1941). [25-26] Klotz.  Fritz, A. (1959).  King, A. (1962). [29-30] Lee, J. & Sears, F. (1963). [31-32] Bazarov, I. (1964).  Bent, H. (1965).  Hatsopoulos, G. & Keenan, J. (1965). [35-37] Kern, R. & Weisbrod, A. (1967).  Battino, R. & Wood, S. (1968).  Bekenstein, J. (1971). [40-41] Lehninger, A. (1971).
how-to-smile All Experiments | Practical Physics This website is for teachers of physics in schools and colleges. It is a collection of experiments that demonstrate a wide range of physical concepts and processes. Some of the experiments can be used as starting-points for investigations or for enhancement activities. Many have links to carefully selected further reading and all include information and guidance for technicians. Physics is a practical science. Practical activities are not just motivational and fun: they can also sharpen students’ powers of observation, stimulate questions, and help develop new understanding and vocabulary. Good quality, appropriate physics experiments and investigations are the key to enhanced learning, and clarification and consolidation of theory. We have published a new set of resources to support the teaching of practical science for Key Stages 3-5.
The Physics Classroom Dimensions Home A film for a wide audience! Nine chapters, two hours of maths, that take you gradually up to the fourth dimension. Mathematical vertigo guaranteed! Background information on every chapter: see "Details". Click on the image on the left to watch the trailer ! (turn your speakers on please). Free download and you can watch the films online! The film can also be ordered as a DVD. This film is being distributed under a Creative Commons license. Now with even more languages for the commentary and subtitles: Commentary in Arabic, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Spanish and Russian. Film produced by: Jos Leys (Graphics and animations) Étienne Ghys (Scenario and mathematics) Aurélien Alvarez (Realisation and post-production)
The National Science Digital Library Science, Optics and You Online Activities for Students The following activities are provided to help you investigate light, optics, and color. They were written by educators with input from scientists, researchers, students, and teachers. Students, teachers, and parents are encouraged to work together to begin an exploration of concepts that help us learn about how we see our world. Activity 1: Perspectives: Powers of 10 - Scientists look at things using their eyes, but they also use a wide variety of specialized tools that give them extra capabilities. For instance, some objects are so small that scientists must use powerful microscopes to see them. Activity 2: K-W-L: What I Know, What I Want to Know, What I Learned - The K-W-L chart is a way for you to put in writing some of your ideas about lenses. Activity 3: Using Media to Explore Light and Optics - Much of the information that you get comes from the media--newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. How Can I Learn More About...? How Does It Work?
Articles on "Electricity" Why three prongs?Why do wall outlets have three holes? "Grounding" and safety. Right Angle CircuitryDo Lenz' Law and the Right Hand rule still work... after you've been turned INSIDE OUT by that greasy black Fog? "Static Electric" misconceptionsA list of things which gave me a warped view of Electrostatics. Speed of "Electricity"? Triboelectric Series If a cat gets trapped in a clothes dryer full of nylon pantyhose, which way do the electrons flow? Where does EM energy flow in a circuit? How Scientists Define the word "Electricity" Quotes from J.C. Barriers to Understanding ElectricityTwenty misconceptions which prevented me from understanding simple electrical science as a student. "Static" Electricity is really just high voltage.Scuff on the rug, then measure your body voltage. Electricity mistakes and 'nitpicking' also How SHOULD we teach Electricity? "Static" sparks Doorknob sparks and zapping yourself on the car door... and people who suffer from an "electric shock" disease.