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Brain Atlas - Introduction

Brain Atlas - Introduction
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord, immersed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Weighing about 3 pounds (1.4 kilograms), the brain consists of three main structures: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem. Cerebrum - divided into two hemispheres (left and right), each consists of four lobes (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal). The outer layer of the brain is known as the cerebral cortex or the ‘grey matter’. It covers the nuclei deep within the cerebral hemisphere e.g. the basal ganglia; the structure called the thalamus, and the ‘white matter’, which consists mostly of myelinated axons. – closely packed neuron cell bodies form the grey matter of the brain. Cerebellum – responsible for psychomotor function, the cerebellum co-ordinates sensory input from the inner ear and the muscles to provide accurate control of position and movement. Basal Ganglia Thalamus and Hypothalamus Ventricles Limbic System Reticular Activating System Neurons Glia

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The Brain: A Body Fit for a Freaky-Big Brain Aiello and Wheeler noted that this dramatic increase in brain size would seem to have required a dramatic increase in metabolism—the same way that adding an air-conditioning system to a house would increase the electricity bill. Yet humans burn the same number of calories, scaled to size, as other primates. Somehow, Aiello and Wheeler argued, our ancestors found a way to balance their energy budget. As they expanded their brains, perhaps they slimmed down other organs.

Brain is not fully mature until 30s and 40s (PhysOrg.com) -- New research from the UK shows the brain continues to develop after childhood and puberty, and is not fully developed until people are well into their 30s and 40s. The findings contradict current theories that the brain matures much earlier. Professor Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, a neuroscientist with the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience at University College London, said until around a decade ago many scientists had "pretty much assumed that the human brain stopped developing in early childhood," but recent research has found that many regions of the brain continue to develop for a long time afterwards.

Flip of a single molecular switch makes an old brain young A cultured neuron with projecting dendrites studded with sites of communication between neurons, known as dendritic spines. The flip of a single molecular switch helps create the mature neuronal connections that allow the brain to bridge the gap between adolescent impressionability and adult stability. Now Yale School of Medicine researchers have reversed the process, recreating a youthful brain that facilitated both learning and healing in the adult mouse. Scientists have long known that the young and old brains are very different. 10 Websites that Teach Coding and More So you want to learn to code, do you? Well, you happen to be in luck, as it has never been easier or cheaper to learn that new skill, and there are plenty of websites that teach coding and more. They will help turn you from zero to hero, as long as you stick to it and practice, practice, practice!

Neurological Control - Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter Molecules Neurotransmitters can be broadly split into two groups – the ‘classical’, small molecule neurotransmitters and the relatively larger neuropeptide neurotransmitters. Within the category of small molecule neurotransmitters, the biogenic amines (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and histamine) are often referred to as a discrete group because of their similarity in terms of their chemical properties. Click on the links in the table above to read more about some of the important neurotransmitters. Serotonin How mapping neurons could reveal how experiences affect mental wiring This article was taken from the July 2012 issue of Wired magazine. Be the first to read Wired's articles in print before they're posted online, and get your hands on loads of additional content by subscribing online. No road, no trail can penetrate this forest. The long and delicate branches of its trees lie everywhere, choking space with their exuberant growth. No sunbeam can fly a path tortuous enough to navigate the narrow spaces between these entangled branches.

How Our Brains Feel Emotion With rendition switcher Question: What is happening in our brain when we feel an emotion? Antonio Damasio: Feeling of an emotion is a process that is distinct from having the emotion in the first place. So it helps to understand what is an emotion, what is a feeling, we need to understand what is an emotion. And the emotion is the execution of a very complex program of actions.

Nogo Proteins & Receptors Discovered as the molecules that block axon regeneration following injury, Nogo proteins are one of the most potent neurite growth inhibitors in the CNS. Nogo proteins function as negative regulators during development and serve as stabilizers of neuronal wiring in adult brain. A member of the Reticulon (RTN) family, alternative splicing and differential promoter usage results in the generation of three protein products (Nogo-A, -B, and -C) from a single gene (RTN4/NOGO). The inhibitory actions of Nogo-A are dependent on two domains, Nogo-66 which is present in all three isoforms, and a sequence referred to as Nogo-delta 20, that is unique to the long N-terminal domain of Nogo-A.

Read page 99s & give feedback Why Page 99, Not Page 1? Because it's arbitrary. It's rarely as worked on as the elements we usually judge a book by. Like the synopsis, the first few pages, or (you know it's true) the cover. Notes from the Undergrad By Andrew Newburg | Yawn. Go ahead: Laugh if you want (though you’ll benefit your brain more if you smile), but in my professional opinion, yawning is one of the best-kept secrets in neuroscience. Even my colleagues who are researching meditation, relaxation, and stress reduction at other universities have overlooked this powerful neural-enhancing tool. The Brain's Highways: Mapping the Last Frontier Frontiers are in short supply. No explorer will again catch that first glimpse of the Pacific Ocean with “wild surmise,” take the first steps on the moon, or arrive first at the Challenger deep – the remotest corners of the earth are now tourist attractions. Even in science, great mysteries have fallen – life itself has gone from being the subject of metaphysical speculation about vital substances to the biophysical understanding of cellular processes. Uncharted territories, both physical and metaphorical, are hard to find.

Your brain chemistry existed before animals did - life - 01 September 2011 WHEN wondering about the origins of our brain, don't look to Homo sapiens, chimpanzees, fish or even worms . Many key components first appeared in single-celled organisms, long before animals, brains and even nerve cells existed. Dirk Fasshauer of the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, and colleagues were studying a pair of essential neural proteins called Munc18/syntaxin1 when they decided to look for them in very simple, single-celled organisms. Choanoflagellates are aquatic organisms found in oceans and rivers around the globe. Being a single cell, they do not have nerves, yet the team found both proteins in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, and the interaction between the two was the same as in neurons (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1106189108).

Neuron - Anatomical Plasticity of Adult Brain Is Titrated by Nogo Receptor 1 To view the full text, please login as a subscribed user or purchase a subscription. Click here to view the full text on ScienceDirect. Neuron, Volume 77, Issue 5 , 859-866, 6 March 2013 Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.12.027 Authors Hint: Rollover Authors and Affiliations 100 Exquisite Adjectives By Mark Nichol Adjectives — descriptive words that modify nouns — often come under fire for their cluttering quality, but often it’s quality, not quantity, that is the issue. Plenty of tired adjectives are available to spoil a good sentence, but when you find just the right word for the job, enrichment ensues. Practice precision when you select words. Here’s a list of adjectives: Subscribe to Receive our Articles and Exercises via Email

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