40 Maps That Explain The Middle East Maps can be a powerful tool for understanding the world, particularly the Middle East, a place in many ways shaped by changing political borders and demographics. Here are 40 maps crucial for understanding the Middle East — its history, its present, and some of the most important stories in the region today. Middle East History The fertile crescent, the cradle of civilization The fertile crescent, the cradle of civilizationIf this area wasn't the birthplace of human civilization, it was at least a birthplace of human civilization. The Middle East today The dialects of Arabic today The dialects of Arabic todayThis map shows the vast extent of the Arabic-speaking world and the linguistic diversity within it. Israel-Palestine Israel's 1947 founding and the 1948 Israeli-Arab War Israel's 1947 founding and the 1948 Israeli-Arab WarThese three maps show how Israel went from not existing to, in 1947 and 1948, establishing its national borders. Syria Iran Afghanistan Saudi Arabia and Oil
16th and 17th Centuries home | 6th-15th centuries | 18-19th centuries | 1901 to World War II | 1945 to 21st century Christopher Columbus to the Caribbean – motives, local people and historical impact Portuguese ahead of other Europeans in Africa and Asia – maritime trade to Africa and Asia The Portuguese to America – Brazil, conquest and slavery Spain's Empire expands, to the year 1600 – from the Caribbean, to Mexico, New Mexico and South America Spain in Latin America in the 17th Century – including New Mexico and Texas French, Dutch and English to America – north from Florida, 1550 to 1700 The Protestant Reformation – discontent, Luther's protest, spread of conflict and more Renaissance. Thirty Years' War – 1618-48, origins, witches, pogroms, Peace of Westphalia Dutch Capitalism and Liberalism – prosperity, tolerance and a modern liberal order Stagnation and Decline in Spain – the landed and their value dominate England, from James to William and Mary – from civil war to the Glorious Revolution Science and Philosophy
The Hunger Games Trilogy Fansite Timeline of metal processes, heat treatments, surface technology - Bodycote Puabi (commonly labelled Queen Puabi) was an important person in the Sumerian city of Ur, during the First Dynasty of Ur. A gold goblet with a double-walled vessel made for her was found in her tomb. Brazed with an alloy of 25% silver, the gold was called ‘electrum’. Gold brazing was known and skilfully practiced by the Sumerians, the first civilisation in the history of man in the 3rd century BC. The goblet, created for Puabi, was found still filled with green eye paint in the Cemetery of Ur (in modern day Iraq) by Sir Leonard Woolley between 1922 and 1934, and is one of the earliest surviving examples of a brazed joint. The upper portion is double-walled and the brazed joint is made around the periphery. Other examples of early brazing include drinking vessels with handles attached to the body using a brazing technique originating in Troy around 2200 BC. Brazing on a larger scale is undertaken in furnaces.
14 Exceptional Weapon Designs From History You Should Know About The scope of ‘hi-tech’ designs is not just limited to our modern affairs. As it turns out, history has had its fair share of brilliant (and sometimes bizarre) weapon conceptions that were arguably ‘advanced’ in every sense of the word. So, without further ado, let us take a gander at fourteen such advanced weapon systems from history that were surely far ahead of their time. *Please note – By ‘designs’ we have also taken into account the conceptual designs that were conceived by military engineers throughout history. 1) Gastraphetes (probably invented in late 5th century BC) – Literally translated to “belly-releaser”, the Gastraphetes was an ancient handheld crossbow-like mechanism described and drawn in a detailed manner in Heron of Alexandria’s compiled Belopoeica. As for its historical context, the Gastraphetes was possibly invented between the period of 421 BC to 401 BC, by Zopyros – a Pythagorean engineer from Southern Italy. 2) Chu-Ko-Nu (probably invented in 4th century BC) –
The most beautiful death Brave New World novelist Aldous Huxley was diagnosed with cancer in 1960, at which point his health slowly began to deteriorate. On his deathbed in November of 1963, just as he was passing away, Aldous — a man who for many years had been fascinated with the effects of psychedelic drugs since being introduced to mescaline in 1953 — asked his wife Laura to administer him with LSD. She agreed. The following letter — an incredibly moving, detailed account of Aldous's last days — was written by Laura just days after her husband's death and sent to his older brother Julian. Transcript follows. 6233 Mulholland Highway Los Angeles 28, California December 8, 1963Dearest Julian and Juliette:There is so much I want to tell you about the last week of Aldous' life and particularly the last day.