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Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire, alternatively known as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking eastern half continuation and remainder of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally founded as Byzantium. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr. Several events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire's east and west divided. Nomenclature[edit] History[edit] Related:  Byzantine Empire (4th century – 1453)World Historyhuman geography

Plague of Justinian A characteristic of the Plague of Justinian was necrosis of the hand The Plague of Justinian (AD 541–542) was a pandemic that afflicted the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), especially its capital Constantinople, the Sassanid Empire and Mediterranean port cities.[1] It has been called one of the greatest plagues in history. Recent research has confirmed that the cause of the pandemic was Yersinia pestis, the organism responsible for bubonic plague.[2][3] The plague's social and cultural impact during the period of Justinian has been compared to that of the Black Death. The plague returned periodically until the 8th century.[1] The waves of disease had a major effect on the future course of European history. Origins and spread[edit] The outbreak in Constantinople was thought to have been carried to the city by infected rats on grain boats arriving from Egypt.[5] To feed its citizens, the city and outlying communities imported massive amounts of grain—mostly from Egypt. Cause[edit]

Byzantine Greece The history of Byzantine Greece mainly coincides with the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. Roman Greece[edit] Greece was a typical eastern province of the Roman Empire. The Romans sent colonists there and contributed new buildings to its cities, especially in the Agora of Athens, where the Agrippeia of Marcus Agrippa, the Library of Titus Flavius Pantaenus, and the Tower of the Winds, among others, were built. Romans tended to be philhellenic and Greeks were generally loyal to Rome. Life in Greece continued under the Roman Empire much the same as it had previously, and Greek continued to be the lingua franca in the Eastern and most important part of the Empire. During that period, Greek intellectuals such as Galen or Apollodorus of Damascus were continuously being brought to Rome. At the same time Greece and much of the rest of the Roman east came under the influence of Christianity. Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire[edit] Further invasions and reorganization[edit] Bulgarian threat[edit]

Western Roman Empire The rise of Odoacer of the Foederati to rule over Italy in 476 was popularized by eighteenth-century historian Edward Gibbon as a demarcating event for the end of the Western Empire and is sometimes used to mark the transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Background[edit] As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not effectively rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were especially problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. Rebellions, uprisings, and political developments[edit] Minor rebellions and uprisings were fairly common events throughout the Empire. The main enemy in the West was arguably the Germanic tribes behind the rivers Rhine and Danube. The Parthian Empire, in the East, on the other hand, was too remote and powerful to be conquered. Economic stagnation in the West[edit] Crisis of the 3rd century[edit] The organization of the Empire under the Tetrarchy. Tetrarchy[edit] Second division[edit]

Ravenna Ravenna (Romagnol: Ravêna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. Although an inland city, Ravenna is connected to the Adriatic Sea by the Candiano Canal. History[edit] The origin of the name Ravenna is unclear, although it is believed the name is Etruscan.[1] Some have speculated that "ravenna" is related to "Rasenna" (later "Rasna"), the term that the Etruscans used for themselves, but there is no agreement on this point. Ancient era[edit] The Mausoleum of Theoderic. Theoderic and his followers were Arian Christians, but co-existed peacefully with the Latins, who were largely Orthodox. Exarchate of Ravenna[edit] Middle Ages and Renaissance[edit] Modern age[edit] Main sights[edit] The Arian Baptistry . Music[edit]

File:2000 Year Temperature Comparison.png Economic prosperity Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason) is an era from the 1650s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority. It was promoted by philosophes and local thinkers in urban coffeehouses, salons and masonic lodges. It challenged the authority of institutions that were deeply rooted in society, such as the Catholic Church; there was much talk of ways to reform society with toleration, science and skepticism. New ideas and beliefs spread around the continent and were fostered by an increase in literacy due to a departure from solely religious texts. Use of the term[edit] The term "Enlightenment" emerged in English in the later part of the 19th century,[2] with particular reference to French philosophy, as the equivalent of the French term 'Lumières' (used first by Dubos in 1733 and already well established by 1751). Time span[edit] Goals[edit]

Moesia The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD), showing, on the lower Danube river, the imperial provinces of Moesia Superior (Serbia) and Moesia Inferior (N. Bulgaria/coastal Romania), and the 2 legion deployed in each in 125 Provinces of Moesia Inferior (right) and Moesia Superior (left) highlighted Moesia Inferior (highlighted). Moesia Superior (highlighted). Moesia (/ˈmiːʃə/, /ˈmiːsi.ə/, or /ˈmiːʒə/;[1][2] Latin; Greek: Μοισία)[3] was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River. History[edit] In ancient geographical sources, Moesia was bounded to the south by the Haemus (Balkans) and Scardus (Šar) mountains, to the west by the Drinus (Drina) river, on the north by the Donaris (Danube) and on the east by the Euxine (Black Sea). The region was inhabited chiefly by Thracians, Dacians (Thraco-Dacians), Illyrian and Thraco-Illyrian peoples. Geography[edit] Episcopal sees[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Viking expansion Map showing area of Scandinavian settlement in the eighth (dark red), ninth (red), tenth (orange) centuries. Green denotes areas subjected to frequent Viking raids[image reference needed]. Note : the yellow colour in England and in the south of Italy does not have anything to do with the Vikings, but with the Normans from Normandy The Vikings sailed most of the North Atlantic, reaching south to North Africa and east to Russia, Constantinople and the Middle East, as looters, traders, colonists, and mercenaries. Motivation for expansion[edit] There's much debate among historians about what drove the Viking expansion. Another idea is that the Viking population had exceeded the agricultural potential of their homeland. Alternatively, some scholars propose that the Viking expansion was driven by a youth bulge effect: since the eldest son of a family customarily inherited the family's entire estate, younger sons had to seek their fortune by emigrating or engaging in raids. British Isles[edit]

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