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Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire, alternatively known as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking eastern half continuation and remainder of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally founded as Byzantium. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr. Several events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire's east and west divided. Nomenclature[edit] History[edit] Related:  World Historyhuman geography

History of Europe The history of Europe covers the people inhabiting the European continent since it was first populated in prehistoric times to the present. The first Homo sapiens arrived between 45,000 and 25,000 BC. The earliest settlers to Prehistoric Europe came during the paleolithic era. The adoption of agriculture around 7000 BC ushered in the neolithic age. Neolithic Europe lasted for 4000 years, overlapping with metal-using cultures that gradually spread throughout the continent. Technological advances during the prehistoric age came via the Mediterranean peoples, spreading gradually to the northwest. The period known as classical antiquity began with the rise of the city-states of Ancient Greece. Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the rise, and later fall, of the Mongol Empire. The period between 1815 and 1871 saw a large number of revolutionary attempts and independence wars. Following the Allied victory in the Second World War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain.

Western Roman Empire The rise of Odoacer of the Foederati to rule over Italy in 476 was popularized by eighteenth-century historian Edward Gibbon as a demarcating event for the end of the Western Empire and is sometimes used to mark the transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Background[edit] As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not effectively rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were especially problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. Rebellions, uprisings, and political developments[edit] Minor rebellions and uprisings were fairly common events throughout the Empire. The main enemy in the West was arguably the Germanic tribes behind the rivers Rhine and Danube. The Parthian Empire, in the East, on the other hand, was too remote and powerful to be conquered. Economic stagnation in the West[edit] Crisis of the 3rd century[edit] The organization of the Empire under the Tetrarchy. Tetrarchy[edit] Second division[edit]

Ravenna Ravenna (Romagnol: Ravêna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. Although an inland city, Ravenna is connected to the Adriatic Sea by the Candiano Canal. History[edit] The origin of the name Ravenna is unclear, although it is believed the name is Etruscan.[1] Some have speculated that "ravenna" is related to "Rasenna" (later "Rasna"), the term that the Etruscans used for themselves, but there is no agreement on this point. Ancient era[edit] The Mausoleum of Theoderic. Theoderic and his followers were Arian Christians, but co-existed peacefully with the Latins, who were largely Orthodox. Exarchate of Ravenna[edit] Middle Ages and Renaissance[edit] Modern age[edit] Main sights[edit] The Arian Baptistry . Music[edit]

History of Greece The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern state of Greece, as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied much through the ages, and, as a result, the history of Greece is similarly elastic in what it includes. Each era has its own related sphere of interest. The first (proto-) Greek-speaking tribes, are generally thought to have arrived in the Greek mainland between the late 3rd and the first half of the 2nd millennium BC – probably between 1900 and 1600 BC. When the Mycenaeans invaded, the area was inhabited by various non-Greek-speaking, indigenous pre-Greek people, who practiced agriculture as they had done since the 7th millennium BC. Prehistoric Greece[edit] Neolithic[edit] The Neolithic Revolution reached Europe by way of Greece and the Balkans, beginning in the 10th millennium BC. Bronze Age[edit] Cycladic and Minoan civilization[edit] Mycenaean civilization[edit]

Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason) is an era from the 1650s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority. It was promoted by philosophes and local thinkers in urban coffeehouses, salons and masonic lodges. It challenged the authority of institutions that were deeply rooted in society, such as the Catholic Church; there was much talk of ways to reform society with toleration, science and skepticism. New ideas and beliefs spread around the continent and were fostered by an increase in literacy due to a departure from solely religious texts. Use of the term[edit] The term "Enlightenment" emerged in English in the later part of the 19th century,[2] with particular reference to French philosophy, as the equivalent of the French term 'Lumières' (used first by Dubos in 1733 and already well established by 1751). Time span[edit] Goals[edit]

Moesia The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD), showing, on the lower Danube river, the imperial provinces of Moesia Superior (Serbia) and Moesia Inferior (N. Bulgaria/coastal Romania), and the 2 legion deployed in each in 125 Provinces of Moesia Inferior (right) and Moesia Superior (left) highlighted Moesia Inferior (highlighted). Moesia Superior (highlighted). Moesia (/ˈmiːʃə/, /ˈmiːsi.ə/, or /ˈmiːʒə/;[1][2] Latin; Greek: Μοισία)[3] was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River. History[edit] In ancient geographical sources, Moesia was bounded to the south by the Haemus (Balkans) and Scardus (Šar) mountains, to the west by the Drinus (Drina) river, on the north by the Donaris (Danube) and on the east by the Euxine (Black Sea). The region was inhabited chiefly by Thracians, Dacians (Thraco-Dacians), Illyrian and Thraco-Illyrian peoples. Geography[edit] Episcopal sees[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Alexander the Great During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. When he succeeded his father to the throne in 336 BC, after Philip was assassinated, Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. He had been awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's military expansion plans. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid empire, ruled Asia Minor, and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. Seeking to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea", he invaded India in 326 BC, but was eventually forced to turn back at the demand of his troops. Early life Lineage and childhood Bust of a young Alexander the Great from the Hellenistic era, British Museum On the day that Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. Philip's heir

Ancient Rome In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into "Classical Antiquity" together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman society has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language and society. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. Founding myth Kingdom Main article: Roman Kingdom

Pannonia (Roman province) Julius Pokorny derived the name Pannonia from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, water, wet" (cf. English fen, "marsh"; Hindi pani, "water").[7] The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD), showing, on the middle Danube river, the imperial provinces of Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior and the 2 legions deployed in each in 125 Map showing Constantine I's conquests of areas of present-day eastern Hungary, western Romania and northern Serbia, in the first decades of the 4th century (pink color). Some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian war, Trajan divided the province into Pannonia Superior (western part with the capital Carnuntum), and Pannonia Inferior (eastern part with the capitals in Aquincum and Sirmium[8]). Under Diocletian a fourfold division of the country was made: Diocletian also moved parts of today's Slovenia out of Pannonia and incorporated them in Noricum. Aquincum

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