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Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه, Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a Sunni Islamic state founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.[7] With conquests in the Balkans by Murad I between 1362 and 1389, the Ottoman sultanate was transformed into a transcontinental empire and claimant to caliphate. The Ottomans overthrew the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) by Mehmed II.[8][9][10] With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. Name[edit] History[edit] Rise (1299–1453)[edit] In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. Law[edit]

Related:  Islam

Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Ahmed Raza Khan Fazil-e-Barelvi (Urdu: احمد رضاخان‎, Hindi: अहमद रज़ा खान, 1856–1921 CE or 10/10/1272__25/02/1340 AH, born & died Bareilly, UP), popularly known as Aala Hazrat, was a Hanafi Sunni who founded the Barelvi movement of South Asia.[2][3][4] Raza Khan wrote on numerous topics, including law, religion, philosophy and the sciences. He was a prolific writer, producing nearly 1,000 works in his lifetime.[3] Early life[edit]

FC70: The Holy Roman Empire of Germany (911-c.1500) Introduction The history of the Holy Roman Empire, as Germany was then known, differed quite markedly from France and England. Whereas those two countries were well on their way to developing national monarchies by 1300, Germany was disintegrating into feudal anarchy. This was largely the result of Germany being tied to the ancient and somewhat outdated concept of a universal Roman Empire that claimed dominion over all of Europe. Atatürk's Reforms Atatürk's Reforms (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri) were a series of political, legal, cultural, social and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state. Central to these reforms were the belief that Turkish society would have to Westernize itself both politically and culturally in order to modernize.[1] Political reforms involved a number of fundamental institutional changes that brought end of many traditions, and followed a carefully planned program to unravel the complex system that had developed over the centuries.[2] The reforms were implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology. Reforms began with the modernization of the constitution, including enacting the new Constitution of 1924 which replaced the Constitution of 1921, and the adaptation of European laws and jurisprudence to the needs of the new republic. Goals[edit]

The collapse of American democracy 12 March 2012 One week ago, US Attorney General Eric Holder delivered a speech asserting the right of the president to secretly order the assassination of American citizens. Citing the so-called “war on terror,” he claimed that this never-before-asserted authority was lawful under the president’s war-making powers and was not subject to judicial review. Holder stressed that the president’s power to order extra-judicial killings was part of a range of powers including the abduction of suspected terrorists and their indefinite internment, without trial, either in civilian or military prisons. Having noted that terrorists “reside within our own borders,” he insisted that the government’s authority to use lethal force was “not limited to the battlefields of Afghanistan.” The speech was in response to pressure on the administration to provide a legal rationale for the targeted killing of three US citizens in Yemen last fall.

Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon. The drought came in three waves, 1934, 1936, and 1939–40, but some regions of the high plains experienced drought conditions for as many as eight years.[1] With insufficient understanding of the ecology of the plains, farmers had conducted extensive deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains during the previous decade; this had displaced the native, deep-rooted grasses that normally trapped soil and moisture even during periods of drought and high winds. The drought and erosion of the Dust Bowl affected 100,000,000 acres (400,000 km2) that centered on the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma and touched adjacent sections of New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas.[5]

Imam al-Bukhari and the Science of Hadith In Islamic sciences, all knowledge of the religion comes back to two sources: the Quran and the sayings and doings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ – the hadith. The Quran is of course considered the un-changed word of Allah as revealed to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and is thus the foundation of all Islamic knowledge. Second after the Quran is the example set forth by the Prophet ﷺ. But considering that he lived 1400 years ago, how can we be sure that the sayings and doings we attribute to him are real and unchanged? To someone unfamiliar with the science of hadith, the collections of hadith may seem unreliable and susceptible to corruption. Holy Roman Empire The empire grew out of East Francia, a primary division of the Frankish Empire. Pope Leo III crowned Frankish king Charlemagne as emperor on Christmas 800, restoring the title in the West after more than three centuries. After Charlemagne died, the title passed in a desultory manner during the decline and fragmentation of the Carolingian dynasty, eventually falling into abeyance.[6] The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne[7] and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.[6][8][9] Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire,[10][11] while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning.[12][13] Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles comprising the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role.[4][10]

History of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I. As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (today named Istanbul) in 1453, the state grew into a mighty empire. The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north. After its defeat at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, however, the empire began a slow decline, culminating in the defeat of the empire by the Allies in World War I. The empire was dismantled by the Allies after the war ended in 1918. Rise of the Ottoman Empire (1299–1453)[edit]

Who are America's Creditors? or, Debt Economics for Beginners Thanks to all of you who read and enjoyed The U.S. National Debt – 233 years in the making. Here, at last is the third article in this series on World Debt – Who are America’s Creditors? Or, debt economics for beginners. Let us fittingly start this article with wise words from one of the founding fathers: "There is in the nature of government an impatience of control that disposes those invested with power to look with an evil eye upon all external attempts to restrain or direct its operations.

Baruch Spinoza Biography[edit] Family and community origins[edit] Spinoza's ancestors were of Sephardic Jewish descent, and were a part of the community of Portuguese Jews that had settled in the city of Amsterdam in the wake of the Alhambra Decree in Spain (1492) and the Portuguese Inquisition (1536), which had resulted in forced conversions and expulsions from the Iberian peninsula.[11] Attracted by the Decree of Toleration issued in 1579 by the Union of Utrecht, Portuguese "conversos" first sailed to Amsterdam in 1593 and promptly reconverted to Judaism.[12] In 1598 permission was granted to build a synagogue, and in 1615 an ordinance for the admission and government of the Jews was passed.[13] As a community of exiles, the Portuguese Jews of Amsterdam were highly proud of their identity.[13]

How Does An Islamist Extremist Change His Mind? Part 3 of the TED Radio Hour episode Turning Points. About Maajid Nawaz's TEDTalk For more than a decade, Maajid Nawaz recruited young Muslims to an extreme Islamist group. But while serving time in an Egyptian prison, he went through a complete ideological transformation. He left the group, his friends, his marriage for a new life as a democracy advocate. About Maajid Nawaz A General History of the Near East, Chapter 13 1405 to 1798 This chapter covers the following topics: Mohammed the Conqueror The collapse of the Ottoman Turks following the battle of Angora offered Christendom a unique opportunity to expel Islam from the Balkans. The Asian half of the empire all but disappeared, and for a decade the sons of Bayezid squabbled over the European remainder.

History of Turkey The history of Turkey encompasses the history of the region now known as Turkey (derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia; i.e., "Land of the Turks"), including the areas known as Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, from prehistory up to the time of the modern Turkish republic.[1][2] Anatolia (Turkish: Anadolu) comprises most of modern Turkey and is known by the Latin name of Asia Minor. Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic,[3] including various Ancient Anatolian civilizations[4] and ancient Thracians.[5] The remnants of Bronze Age civilizations such as the Hattians, provide examples of the lives of its citizens and their trade. After the fall of the Hittites, new states such as Phrygia and Lydia appeared on the western coast as Greek civilization began to flourish. The growing Persian kingdom eventually absorbed them.

Problems Facing Native American Indians in the Modern World The Native American Indian population of the United States faces serious cultural and social dilemmas that threaten their society. Among these issues are the problems of poverty, alienation and a high rate of alcoholism. There is also the threat of a loss of their cultural identity due to interracial marriages and the large number of young Native Americans who are leaving the territories of the Indian Nations and becoming fully integrated into American culture, leaving the old ways of their cultural history behind.

Related:  Chapter 2