Jihad Jihad (English pronunciation: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد ǧihād [dʒiˈhæːd]), is an Islamic term referring to a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād is a noun meaning "struggle" or "resisting". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid, the plural of which is mujahideen. The word jihad appears frequently in the Quran, often in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God (al-jihad fi sabil Allah)".
Islamic Contributions to Civilization About the Author STANWOOD COBB was born in Newton, Mass. In 1881. He attended Newton High School and Dartmouth College. In graduate work at Harvard he specialized in the history and philosophy of religion. He then taught for three years at Robert College, Istanbul, and in 1914 published a book, based on his experiences in the Orient-one of the first books in America to give sympathetic treatment to the Turk and to Islam.
Napoleonic code First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code ‒ or Code Napoléon (the official name being the Code civil des Français) ‒ is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified. Criticism of Muhammad Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century, when Muhammad was decried by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching monotheism. During the Middle Ages he was frequently seen in European and other non-Muslim polemics as a Christian heretic, and/or possessed by demons. In modern times, criticism has also dealt with Muhammad's sincerity in claiming to be a prophet, his ownership of slaves, his morality and his marriages.
Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe From the 11th to 13th centuries, medieval Europe absorbed knowledge from Islamic civilization, which was then at its cultural peak. Of particular importance was the rediscovery of the ancient classic texts, most notably the work of the Greek natural philosopher Aristotle, through retranslations from Arabic. Also of note is the reception of advances in astronomy and mathematics made in the Islamic world during the 10th century, such as the development of the astrolabe. Transmission routes List of country legal systems Civil law While the concept of codification dates back to the Code of Hammurabi in Babylon ca. 1790 BC, civil law systems derive from the Roman Empire and, more particularly, the Corpus Juris Civilis issued by the Emperor Justinian ca. AD 529. This was an extensive reform of the law in the Byzantine Empire, bringing it together into codified documents. Civil law was also partly influenced by religious laws such as Canon law and Islamic law. Civil law today, in theory, is interpreted rather than developed or made by judges.
LGBT in Islam LGBT and Islam is influenced by the religious, legal and cultural history of the nations with a sizable Muslim population, along with specific passages in the Qur'an and statements attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad (hadith). Hadiths traditionally are not interpreted because their language is understood to be simple matter-of-fact language. Orthodox Islam is not only a system of beliefs, but also a legal system. The traditional schools of Islamic law based on Qur'anic verses and hadith consider homosexual acts a punishable crime and a sin, and influenced by Islamic scholars such as Imam Malik and Imam Shafi. The Qur'an cites the story of the "people of Lot" (also known as the people of Sodom and Gomorrah), destroyed by the wrath of God because they engaged in "lustful" carnal acts between men. Today in most of the Islamic world homosexuality is not socially or legally accepted.
Islamic influences on Western art Islamic influences on Western art refers to the influence of Islamic art, the artistic production in the Islamic world from the 7th to the 19th century, on Christian art. During this period, the frontier between Christendom and the Islamic world varied a lot resulting in some cases in exchanges of populations and of corresponding art practices and techniques. Furthermore, the two civilizations had regular relationships through diplomacy and trade that facilitated cultural exchanges. Comparative law History The origins of modern comparative law can be traced back to 18th century Europe, although, prior to that, legal scholars had always practiced comparative methodologies. Montesquieu is generally regarded as an early founding figure of comparative law. His comparative approach is obvious in the following excerpt from Chapter III of Book I of his masterpiece, De l'esprit des lois (1748; first translated by Thomas Nugent, 1750):
Islamic terrorism "Islamic violence" and "Islamist violence" redirect here. For other types of violence associated with Islam, see Islam and violence. "Islamic militants" redirects here. 15 Famous Muslim (Arab & Persian) Scientists and their Inventions Muslim scientists and inventors, including Arabs, Persians and Turks, were probably hundreds of years ahead of their counterparts in the European Middle Ages. They drew influence from Aristotelian philosophy and Neo-platonists, as well as Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy and others. The muslims made innumerable discoveries and wrote countless books about medicine, surgery, physics, chemistry, philosophy, astrology, geometry and various other fields.
Canon law Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law governing the Catholic Church (both Latin Church and Eastern Catholic Churches), the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the Anglican Communion of churches. The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was originally a rule adopted by a church council; these canons formed the foundation of canon law. Etymology Greek kanon / κανών, Arabic Qanon / قانون, Hebrew kaneh / קנה, "straight"; a rule, code, standard, or measure; the root meaning in all these languages is "reed" (cf. the Romance-language ancestors of the English word "cane").
Women in Islam Sharia provides for complementarianism, differences between women's and men's roles, rights, and obligations. Being a Muslim is more than a religious identity; Islam outlines and structures ways in which Muslim women should live their lives on a day-to-day basis. Islam mandates that a woman must have her husband’s permission to leave the house and take up employment. In majority Muslim countries women exercise varying degrees of their religious rights with regards to marriage, divorce, legal status, dress code, and education based on different interpretations. Scholars and other commentators vary as to whether they are just and whether they are a correct interpretation of religious imperatives.
Islamic Contributions – Islamic Center of Topeka With Allah’s name The Merciful Benefactor, The Merciful Redeemer. Islamic Contributions to a Pluralistic Society By Imam Omar Hazim Historians agree that the brilliant achievements of the Twentieth Century science and technology, have been greatly enhanced and inspired by the early philosophers, scientists, chemist, mathematicians, architects and physicians of the Muslim World. Islam has made great contributions to the cultivation of the physical sciences.