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To Arabic-speaking people, sharia (shariah, shari'a, sharīʿah; Arabic: شريعة‎ šarīʿah, IPA: [ʃaˈriːʕa], "legislation"),[1] also known as Islāmī qānūn (اسلامی قانون), means the moral code and religious law of a prophetic religion.[2][3] In English usage, the term "sharia" has been largely identified with Islam.[4] Sharia deals with many topics addressed by secular law, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Though interpretations of sharia vary between cultures, in its strictest and most historically coherent definition it is considered the infallible law of God—as opposed to the human interpretation of the laws (fiqh).[5] However, historically, much of Sharia has been implemented in its strictest understanding. Etymology and origins[edit] History[edit] The Umayyads initiated the office of appointing qadis, or Islamic judges. Definitions and descriptions[edit]

Islamic Contributions to Civilization About the Author STANWOOD COBB was born in Newton, Mass. In 1881. He attended Newton High School and Dartmouth College. In graduate work at Harvard he specialized in the history and philosophy of religion. In 1919 Stanwood Cobb founded the Progressive Education Association of which he was later president. Introduction MY interest in Islam dates from the time I lived in Istanbul, teaching at Robert College. This Muslim attitude of immense calm in the midst of the life of commerce was even more noticeable in the Istanbul bazaars. The Turks were not only honest as merchants, but they were also honest as servants. The piety of the Turk, his faith in Allah, evidenced as calmness in the midst of the busy life of the world, was evidenced as reverence in the daily prayer and in the Friday mosque service. I thus had an Opportunity to attend a mosque service in St. In addition to deep reverence the Muslim worship was also characterized by a spirit of absolute democracy and brotherhood.

Napoleonic code First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code ‒ or Code Napoléon (the official name being the Code civil des Français) ‒ is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified.[1] It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force on 21 March 1804.[1] The Code, with its stress on clearly written and accessible law, was a major step in replacing the previous patchwork of feudal laws. Historian Robert Holtman regards it as one of the few documents that have influenced the whole world.[1] History[edit] The categories of the Napoleonic Code were not drawn from earlier French laws, but instead from Justinian's sixth-century codification of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis and, within it, the Institutes.[2] The Institutes divide law into the law of: personsthingsactions. Napoleonic reforms[edit]

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Istihsan Istihsan (استحسان) is an Arabic term for juristic "preference". In its literal sense it means "to consider something good". Muslim scholars may use it to express their preference for particular judgements in Islamic law over other possibilities. It is one of the principles of legal thought underlying personal interpretation or ijtihad. A number of disputes existed amongst the classical jurists over this principle with the Hanafite jurists adopting this as a secondary source. Etymology[edit] Istihsan (استحسان [istihsan], plural []) is an Arabic word that means "to consider something good". Bazdawi defines it as moving away from the implications of an analogy to an analogy that is stronger than it[2]Al-Halwani defines it as giving up an analogy for a stronger evidence from the Quran, Sunnah or ijma[3]The Maliki jurist, Ibn al-Arabi defines it as sacrificing some of the implications of an evidence by way of exception[4] Types of Istihsan[edit] Examples of Istihsan[edit] Criticisms[edit]

Freedom = Criticism of ALL Religions Is a Fundamental Right Depending on where you live, criticisms of religious beliefs could yield a range of consequences ranging from social scorn to outright execution. Are people living in the West free to criticize religion in general, and all religions with equal alacrity? Regrettably, the answer to both questions is a resounding no. Polite society dictates certain rules of conduct, one of which is to avoid criticizing someone's religious views in too "frontal" a manner. Furthermore, whereas the intelligentsia regards some religions as perfectly fair game for criticism, mockery, and scorn, one particular religion is granted much greater protection within the public arena. There is nothing in the American Constitution that protects religious folks from being offended. I repeatedly read Facebook posts on my wall wherein individuals are perfectly willing to acerbically criticize some religions, but bend over backwards to protect one "untouchable" religion. Source for Image:

Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe From the 11th to 13th centuries, medieval Europe absorbed knowledge from Islamic civilization, which was then at its cultural peak. Of particular importance was the rediscovery of the ancient classic texts, most notably the work of the Greek natural philosopher Aristotle, through retranslations from Arabic. Also of note is the reception of advances in astronomy and mathematics made in the Islamic world during the 10th century, such as the development of the astrolabe. Transmission routes[edit] Europe and the Islamic lands had multiple points of contact during the Middle Ages. The Crusades also intensified exchanges between Europe and the Levant, with the Italian maritime republics taking a major role in these exchanges. During the 11th and 12th centuries, many Christian scholars travelled to Muslim lands to learn sciences. Classical knowledge[edit] These texts were translated back into Latin in multiple ways. Islamic sciences[edit] Chirurgical operation, 15th century Turkish manuscript.

List of country legal systems Civil law[edit] While the concept of codification dates back to the Code of Hammurabi in Babylon ca. 1790 BC, civil law systems derive from the Roman Empire and, more particularly, the Corpus Juris Civilis issued by the Emperor Justinian ca. AD 529. This was an extensive reform of the law in the Byzantine Empire, bringing it together into codified documents. Scholars of comparative law and economists promoting the legal origins theory usually subdivide civil law into four distinct groups: French civil law: in France, the Benelux countries, Italy, Romania, Spain and former colonies of those countries;German civil law: in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Estonia, Latvia, former Yugoslav republics, Greece, Portugal and its former colonies, Turkey, Japan, and the Republic of China;Scandinavian civil law: in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Common law[edit] Religious and sharia law[edit] The main kinds of religious law are Sharia in Islam, Halakha in Judaism, and canon law in some Christian groups.

OPEC {*style:<ul>*} {*style:<li>*} {*style:<h3>*}OPEC Secretary General Barkindo pays inaugural visit to IEA{*style:</h3>*} {*style:<br>*}HE Mohammad Sanusi Barkindo, the recently-appointed Secretary General of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), visited Paris on Friday to meet with Dr. Fatih Birol, the International Energy Agency’s Executive Director. {*style:<a href=' more{*style:</a>*} {*style:</li>*} {*style:<li>*} {*style:<h3>*}Iranian President meets with OPEC Secretary General{*style:</h3>*} {*style:<br>*}The Honorable President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, HE Dr. Hassan Rouhani, today met with HE Mohammad Sanusi Barkindo, Secretary General of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in Tehran.

Ilm al-Kalam ʿIlm al-Kalām (Arabic: علم الكلام‎, literally "science of discourse"[1]), often foreshortened to kalām, is the practice in Islamic philosophy of seeking theological principles through dialectic, debate and argument. A scholar of kalām is referred to as a mutakallim (plural mutakallimūn). There are many possible interpretations as to why this discipline was originally called "kalām"; one is that the widest controversy in this discipline has been about whether the Word of God, as revealed in the Qur'an, can be considered part of God's essence and therefore not created, or whether it was made into words in the normal sense of speech, and is therefore created. One of the earliest deviated systematic theological school to develop was Mu'tazila, in the mid 8th century. Mu'tazila emphasized reason and rational thought, positing that the injunctions of God are accessible to rational thought and inquiry. Criticism[edit] Major Kalām schools[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

From Tribalism to World-Citizenship Between the rockets from the Gaza strip and the endless debate about Iran, last week I participated at an event that showed where Israel could be heading—the first Israel Singularity Convention held at the Academic College of Tel Aviv-Jaffa. The inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil and the space entrepreneur Peter Diamandis founded the Singularity University five years ago at the NASA Base in the Silicon Valley. Its mission is "to assemble, educate and inspire a new generation of leaders who strive to understand and utilize exponentially advancing technologies to address humanity's grand challenges." Research and Development are speeding up at an exponential pace; yesteryear's science fiction becomes tomorrow's reality. As entrepreneur Yanki Margalit, who initiated the convention, said, the cost of mapping the genome was phenomenal in the 1990s—and now you can get your genome mapped for a few hundred dollars. This may sound like a utopia, but it isn't.

Islamic influences on Western art Islamic influences on Western art refers to the influence of Islamic art, the artistic production in the Islamic world from the 7th to the 19th century, on Christian art. During this period, the frontier between Christendom and the Islamic world varied a lot resulting in some cases in exchanges of populations and of corresponding art practices and techniques. Furthermore, the two civilizations had regular relationships through diplomacy and trade that facilitated cultural exchanges. Islamic decorative arts were highly valued imports to Europe throughout the Middle Ages; largely because of accidents of survival the majority of surviving examples are those that were in the possession of the church. In the early period textiles were especially important, used for church vestments, shrouds, hangings and clothing for the elite. Islamic pottery of everyday quality was still preferred to European wares. Middle Ages[edit] Decorative arts[edit] Mudéjar art in Spain[edit] Pseudo-Kufic[edit]

Comparative law History[edit] The origins of modern comparative law can be traced back to 18th century Europe, although, prior to that, legal scholars had always practiced comparative methodologies.[1] Montesquieu is generally regarded as an early founding figure of comparative law. Also, in Chapter XI (entitled 'How to compare two different Systems of Laws') of Book XXIX, discussing the French and English systems for punishment of false witnesses, he advises that "to determine which of those systems is most agreeable to reason, we must take them each as a whole and compare them in their entirety." As the civil laws depend on the political institutions, because they are made for the same society, whenever there is a design of adopting the civil law of another nation, it would be proper to examine beforehand whether they have both the same institutions and the same political law. Comparative law in the US was brought by a legal scholar fleeing persecution in Germany, Rudolf Schlesinger. Purpose[edit]

Saudi Arabia by the Numbers The very concept of public opinion in highly secretive Saudi Arabia is almost an oxymoron. Hard data are difficult to come by, and even rarer is information about controversial and strategically critical current issues: views about military action against Iran, corruption and the state of civil liberties within the kingdom, religious extremism and al Qaeda, and donations to other mujahideen. Yet I was able to obtain exactly this kind of data by working with the new Princeton, N.J.-based firm Pechter Middle East Polls and an established regional survey team. The results are eye-opening. A third of the Saudi public would approve a U.S. military strike against Iran's nuclear program, and a fourth is even willing to say it would support an Israeli operation. Most intriguing of all, however, is that none of these hot-button issues ranks very high on the public's agenda compared with economic concerns. Occasionally the transition from one topic to the next can be a bit awkward, but it works.

Al-Hidayah (book) Al-Hidayah fi Sharh Bidayat al-Mubtadi'' (d. 593 AH/1197 CE) (Arabic: الهداية في شرح بداية المبتدي‎, al-Hidāyah fī Sharḥ Bidāyat al-Mubtadī), commonly referred to as al-Hidayah The Guidance, is a 12th-century Hanafi juridical work by Shaykh al-Islam Burhan al-Din al-Farghani al-Marghinani that is considered an authoritative guide to fiqh among Muslims throughout the world, based on Mukhtasar of Al-Quduri Islamic law. [1] [2] The Hidayah represents the refined distilled and authentic version of a legal tradition developed over many centuries. It presents the corpus of Hanifi law in its approved and preferred form and forges an organic link with the other schools of law. There is no book that can match the power of al-Hidayyah as a teaching manual. Education in Islamic law is not complete without this book. Accordingly, each and every Islamic seminary, whatever its affiliation, imparts instruction in Islamic law through al-Hiddayah. "sound and reliable... clear and lucid.