Ignoria Empecé a leer a Borges en mi juventud, cuando todavía no era un autor de fama internacional. En esos años su nombre era una contraseñaentre iniciados y la lectura de sus obras el culto secreto de unos cuantos adeptos. En México, hacia 1940, los adeptos éramos un grupo de jóvenes y uno que otro mayor reticente: José Luis Martínez, Alí Chumacero, Xavier Villaurrutia y algunos más. Era un escritor para escritores. Lo seguíamos a través de las revistas de aquella época. En números sucesivos de Sur yo leí la serie de cuentos admirables que después, en 1941, formarían su primer libro de ficciones: El jardín de los senderos que se bifurcan. Todavía guardo la vieja edición de pasta azul, letras blancas y, en tinta más oscura, la flecha indicando un sur más metafísico que geográfico. El primero que me habló de la persona real, con asombro y afecto, fue Alfonso Reyes. Nuestros otros encuentros, en México y en Buenos Aires, fueron más afortunados. Lo volví a ver el año pasado, en Nueva York.
The Limits of Theory: Idealism, Distinction and Critical Pedagogy in Chicago Eli Thorkelson Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago “I think questioning a structure from within is very necessary, but we don’t need to know much about history to know the difficulties it produces.” —email from Bernard Dubbeld, 19 Oct 2005. “Systems” is the name of the first class you take in graduate school, if you’re in anthropology at the University of Chicago, although the official, bureaucratic title is “The Development of Social and Cultural Theory, Parts 1 and 2.” Why devote a critical essay to a single course in graduate school, a single course in a single department, a single course that is in no clear way representative of the discipline? In the front hall of our building, Haskell Hall, there is a totem pole that someone got from the Northwest Coast—but it is a decoy. A recursive, ambivalent critical situation I am not the first to see Systems in a critical light. On one level, the essay is simply a result of my own experience in the class, which I found troubling.
Postmodernism The term postmodernism has been applied both to the era following modernity, and to a host of movements within that era (mainly in art, music, and literature) that reacted against tendencies in modernism. Postmodernism includes skeptical critical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, linguistics, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. Postmodernism is often associated with schools of thought such as deconstruction and post-structuralism, as well as philosophers such as Jacques Derrida, Jean Baudrillard, and Frederic Jameson. Origins of term In 1921 and 1925, postmodernism had been used to describe new forms of art and music. In 1942 H. Peter Drucker suggested the transformation into a post modern world happened between 1937 and 1957 (when he was writing). Influential postmodernist philosophers Martin Heidegger (1889–1976) Jacques Derrida (1930–2004) Michel Foucault (1926–1984) Jean-François Lyotard (1924–1998) Deconstruction
Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. From 1939–1947, Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge. During his lifetime he published just one slim book, the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921), one article, one book review and a children's dictionary. His voluminous manuscripts were edited and published posthumously. Philosophical Investigations appeared as a book in 1953 and by the end of the century it was considered an important modern classic. Philosopher Bertrand Russell described Wittgenstein as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense, and dominating". Born in Vienna into one of Europe's richest families, he inherited a large fortune from his father in 1913. Background The Wittgensteins
"¡Maten a Borges!" Joaquín Marof La anécdota que voy a contar tiene varios pasados y en los corredores literarios del Buenos Aires de los años setenta todavía suscitaba respuestas extremas; no se sabe si cada vez que salía a la luz mediante charlas o anécdotas secundarias, en épocas como ésta, se enardecía en Argentina esa disputa moderna que toda cultura libra por el dominio de su propio canon literario o si la polarización política, previa a la instauración brutal de la dictadura, le imprimía a todos los ambientes una buena dosis de sensibilidad bélica y un deseo de aniquilación mutua. Los poetas y narradores cultistas, los adoradores de la forma y súbditos alegres de la obra e influencia de Borges, la entendían en una dimensión que muchas veces rayaba en lo literal. Una de las últimas interpretaciones de la leyenda la dio el escritor Ricardo Piglia. Gombrowicz vivió en Argentina durante su exilio casi involuntario de veinticuatro años.
Fatalism Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine stressing the subjugation of all events or actions to fate. Fatalism generally refers to any of the following ideas: The view that we are powerless to do anything other than what we actually do. Included in this is that man has no power to influence the future, or indeed, his own actions. This belief is very similar to predeterminism.An attitude of resignation in the face of some future event or events which are thought to be inevitable. Friedrich Nietzsche named this idea with "Turkish fatalism" in his book The Wanderer and His Shadow.That actions are free, but nevertheless work toward an inevitable end. This belief is very similar to compatibilist predestination.That acceptance is appropriate, rather than resistance against inevitability. Determinism, fatalism and predeterminism Determinists generally agree that human actions affect the future but that human action is itself determined by a causal chain of prior events.
Reader-response criticism Although literary theory has long paid some attention to the reader's role in creating the meaning and experience of a literary work, modern reader-response criticism began in the 1960s and '70s, particularly in America and Germany, in work by Norman Holland, Stanley Fish, Wolfgang Iser, Hans-Robert Jauss, Roland Barthes, and others. Important predecessors were I. A. Richards, who in 1929 analyzed a group of Cambridge undergraduates' misreadings; Louise Rosenblatt, who, in Literature as Exploration (1938), argued that it is important for the teacher to avoid imposing any "preconceived notions about the proper way to react to any work"; and C. S. Types One can sort reader-response theorists into three groups: those who focus upon the individual reader's experience ("individualists"); those who conduct psychological experiments on a defined set of readers ("experimenters"); and those who assume a fairly uniform response by all readers ("uniformists"). Individualists Some[who?]
Маяковский, Владимир Владимирович Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский (7  июля 1893, Багдати, Кутаисская губерния — 14 апреля 1930, Москва) — русский советский поэт, один из крупнейших поэтов XX века. Помимо поэзии ярко проявил себя как драматург, киносценарист, кинорежиссёр, киноактёр, художник, редактор журналов «ЛЕФ» («Левый Фронт»), «Новый ЛЕФ». Биография[править | править исходный текст] Владимир Маяковский родился в селе Багдати Кутаисской губернии (в советское время посёлок назывался Маяковский) в Грузии, в семье Владимира Константиновича Маяковского (1857—1906), служившего лесничим третьего разряда в Эриванской губернии, с 1889 в Багдатском лесничестве. Мать поэта, Александра Алексеевна Павленко (1867—1954), из рода кубанских казаков, родилась на Кубани. В 1902 году Маяковский поступил в гимназию в Кутаиси. Первое «полустихотворение» Маяковский напечатал в нелегальном журнале «Порыв», который издавался Третьей гимназией. Маяковский в 1910 году Семья Маяковских, Кутаиси, 1905 год В.
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (German: Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus) is a book written by Max Weber, a German sociologist, economist, and politician. Begun as a series of essays, the original German text was composed in 1904 and 1905, and was translated into English for the first time by Talcott Parsons in 1930. It is considered a founding text in economic sociology and sociology in general. In 1998 the International Sociological Association listed this work as the fourth most important sociological book of the 20th century. Summary Basic concepts Religious devotion, Weber argues, is usually accompanied by a rejection of worldly affairs, including the pursuit of wealth and possessions. Weber notes that this is not a philosophy of mere greed, but a statement laden with moral language. It is particularly advantageous in technical occupations for workers to be extremely devoted to their craft. Conclusions Reception
Syllogism A syllogism (Greek: συλλογισμός – syllogismos – "conclusion," "inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true. In its earliest form, defined by Aristotle, from the combination of a general statement (the major premise) and a specific statement (the minor premise), a conclusion is deduced. For example, knowing that all men are mortal (major premise) and that Socrates is a man (minor premise), we may validly conclude that Socrates is mortal. Syllogistic arguments are usually represented in a three-line form (without sentence-terminating periods): All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal The word "therefore" is usually either omitted or replaced by the symbol "∴" Early history From the Middle Ages onwards, categorical syllogism and syllogism were usually used interchangeably. Aristotle Medieval Scholarship Boethius John Buridan
I Ching The I Ching, also known as the Classic of Changes, Book of Changes, Zhouyi and Yijing, is one of the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. The book contains a divination system comparable to Western geomancy or the West African Ifá system; in Western cultures and modern East Asia, it is still widely used for this purpose. Traditionally, the I Ching and its hexagrams were thought to pre-date recorded history, and based on traditional Chinese accounts, its origins trace back to the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. Modern scholarship suggests that the earliest layers of the text may date from the end of the 2nd millennium BCE, but place doubts on the mythological aspects in the traditional accounts. Some consider the I Ching the oldest extant book of divination, dating from 1,000 BCE and before. The oldest manuscript that has been found, albeit incomplete, dates back to the Warring States period (475–221 BCE). History Traditional view Modernist view Structure
Thus Spoke Zarathustra Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (German: Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen, also translated as Thus Spake Zarathustra) is a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, composed in four parts between 1883 and 1885. Much of the work deals with ideas such as the "eternal recurrence of the same", the parable on the "death of God", and the "prophecy" of the Übermensch, which were first introduced in The Gay Science. Origins Thus Spoke Zarathustra was conceived while Nietzsche was writing The Gay Science; he made a small note, reading "6,000 feet beyond man and time," as evidence of this. More specifically, this note related to the concept of the eternal recurrence, which is, by Nietzsche's admission, the central idea of Zarathustra; this idea occurred to him by a "pyramidal block of stone" on the shores of Lake Silvaplana in the Upper Engadine, a high alpine region whose valley floor is at 6,000 ft. Synopsis Themes
Philosophy Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group". The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom". The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras. Areas of inquiry Philosophy is divided into many sub-fields. Epistemology Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, such as the relationships between truth, belief, and theories of justification. Rationalism is the emphasis on reasoning as a source of knowledge. Logic