background preloader

Philosophy and Logic

Facebook Twitter

Are You Able to Solve Einstein's Famous Riddle? Jstor. Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 1.

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Dionysius: Persona Since Pseudo-Dionysius represented himself as St. Dionysius the Areopagite, an Athenian member of the judicial council, the Areopagus, who was converted instantly by St. Paul, his work, strictly speaking, might be regarded as a successful “forgery”, providing him with impeccable Christian credentials that conveniently antedated Plotinus by over two hundred years. So successful was this stratagem that Dionysius acquired almost apostolic authority, giving his writings enormous influence in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, though his views on the Trinity and Christ (e.g., his emphasis upon the single theandric activity of Christ (see Letter 4) as opposed to the later orthodox view of two activities) were not always accepted as orthodox since they required repeated defenses, for example, by John of Scythopolis and by Maximus Confessor. It must also be recognized that “forgery” is a modern notion. 2. The surviving writings are four treatises and ten letters. 3. 4.

Plato's Timaeus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 1.

Plato's Timaeus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Overview of the Dialogue After an introductory conversation (17a1–27d4) that introduces the characters and the speeches already given or about to be given, Timaeus begins the discourse (27d5–92c9) with a prologue (27d5–29d6) in which he sets out the metaphysical principles on which his account is based, introduces the figure of the Craftsman and his eternal model, and provides a brief comment on the status of the account he is about to provide.

This prologue is followed by the discourse proper, which is uninterrupted to the end of the dialogue (29d7–92c9). The discourse unfolds in three main stages: the first sets out the achievements of Intellect (29d7–47e2), the second gives an account of the effects of Necessity (47d3–69a5), and the third shows how Intellect and Necessity cooperate in the production of the psychophysical constitution of human beings (69a6–92c9). 2. 3. 4. 5. Timaeus' opening question (“What is that which always is and never becomes…?”) Philosophy. Core Statement: The unit can be regarded either as the limit of its relations to all other units, or as the point of origination of the unique agency or causality associated with it.

Philosophy

Project Statement (After Aristotle, Metaphysics 987b18 & sq. . ): HYLE 20-1 (2014): Whole-Parts Strategies in Quantum Chemistry: Some Philosophical and Mereological Lessons. Jean-Pierre Llored* Abstract: Philosophers mainly refer to quantum chemistry in order to address questions about the reducibility or autonomy of chemistry relative to quantum physics, and to argue for or against ontological emergence.

HYLE 20-1 (2014): Whole-Parts Strategies in Quantum Chemistry: Some Philosophical and Mereological Lessons

To make their point, they scrutinize quantum approximations and formalisms as if they were independent of the questions at stake. This paper proposes a return to history and to the laboratory so as to emphasize how quantum chemists never cease to negotiate the relationships between a molecule, its parts, and its environment. This investigation will enable us to draw methodological conclusions about the role of history within philosophical studies, and to examine how quantum chemistry can clarify important philosophical and mereological issues related to the emergence/reduction debate, or to the way instruments and contexts are involved in the material making and the formal description of wholes and parts. 1.

We divide our work into four parts. 2. Emergent materialism. In the philosophy of mind, emergent (or emergentist) materialism is a theory which asserts that the mind is an irreducible existent in some sense, albeit not in the sense of being an ontological simple, and that the study of mental phenomena is independent of other sciences.

Emergent materialism

The view can be divided into emergence which denies mental causation and emergence which allows for causal effect. A version of the latter type has been advocated by John R. Searle, called biological naturalism. Philosophers. Spinoza, Benedict De. Benedict de Spinoza was among the most important of the post-Cartesian philosophers who flourished in the second half of the 17th century.

Spinoza, Benedict De

He made significant contributions in virtually every area of philosophy, and his writings reveal the influence of such divergent sources as Stoicism, Jewish Rationalism, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Descartes, and a variety of heterodox religious thinkers of his day. For this reason he is difficult to categorize, though he is usually counted, along with Descartes and Leibniz, as one of the three major Rationalists. Aristotle Biography. The Early Years Aristotle, the greatest and most influential of all the Greek philosophers, was born in 384 BC in the town of Stageria (near Macedonia, on the northern peninsula of Greece).

Aristotle Biography

His father, Nicomachus, was a friend and physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia. Nicomachus belonged to a large family of physicians and healers who are believed to hold this position under various kings of Macedonia. As a boy, Aristotle most likely watched his father treating patients and making medicines from parts of plants and animals. Uses and Misuses of Logic. Introduction This document contains observations on the uses and misuses of logic, particularly in the sciences.

Uses and Misuses of Logic.

Along the way we'll wander into the murky realms of absolute and proximate truths, deduction and induction and address the question of how we can have confidence in knowledge that is less than perfect. We will use certain terms as scientists use them. Great Philosophers: Hypatia. Aristotle: Laws of Thought Philosophy as laws of thought Aristotle was the first person to investigate the patterns and processing of reason.

Great Philosophers: Hypatia

He discovered (some would say invented) logic. For that alone, he counts high in the pantheon of the most influential people in history. Logic provides the basis for proof and demonstration using natural language. Prior to Aristotle, mathematicians had shown arithmetic and geometrical means to proof. Aristotle wrote several extensive works on logic, which taken together are known as The Organon or the instrument, by which which he meant that logic is an instrument for advancing knowledge.

Aristotle was not merely pointing out ways that people should think; he was describing the fundamental principles by which thought can occur at all. 1. How are assumptions important in the critical thinking process? Critical thinking requires using logic, but logic is dependent upon accepting premises.

How are assumptions important in the critical thinking process?

These premises are often called assumptions. Some premises are ironclad, such as assuming that an object dropped on Earth will fall and land safe. Others are unknown. Ensuring that assumptions are correct is essential for creating a well-formed argument. However, correct assumptions are not always necessary to the critical thinking process.

While debating and discussing ideas, people sometimes operate from differing assumptions, and these can cause debates to stagnate. Distinguishing Between Inferences and Assumptions. To be skilled in critical thinking is to be able to take one’s thinking apart systematically, to analyze each part, assess it for quality and then improve it. The first step in this process is understanding the parts of thinking, or elements of reasoning. These elements are: purpose, question, information, inference, assumption, point of view, concepts, and implications. They are present in the mind whenever we reason. Logical Arguments. Arguments and Inference The Discipline of Logic Human life is full of decisions, including significant choices about what to believe.

Although everyone prefers to believe what is true, we often disagree with each other about what that is in particular instances. It may be that some of our most fundamental convictions in life are acquired by haphazard means rather than by the use of reason, but we all recognize that our beliefs about ourselves and the world often hang together in important ways. If I believe that whales are mammals and that all mammals are fish, then it would also make sense for me to believe that whales are fish.

The Structure of Arguments. Logical Fallacies. Introduction to Argument Structure of a Logical Argument Whether we are consciously aware of it or not, our arguments all follow a certain basic structure. They begin with one or more premises, which are facts that the argument takes for granted as the starting point. Then a principle of logic is applied in order to come to a conclusion. This structure is often illustrated symbolically with the following example: Premise1: If A = B, Premise2: and B = C Logical connection: Then (apply principle of equivalence) Conclusion: A = C In order for an argument to be considered valid the logical form of the argument must work – must be valid.

Also it is important to note that an argument may use wrong information, or faulty logic to reach a conclusion that happens to be true. Breaking down an argument into its components is a very useful exercise, for it enables us to examine both our own arguments and those of others and critically analyze them for validity. Examine your Premises. [L01] What is logic? The term "logic" came from the Greek word logos, which is sometimes translated as "sentence", "discourse", "reason", "rule", and "ratio". Of course, these translations are not enough to help us understand the more specialized meaning of "logic" as it is used today. So what is logic? Briefly speaking, we might define logic as the study of the principles of correct reasoning.

This is a rough definition, because how logic should be properly defined is actually quite a controversial matter. Logical Deduction Important Formulas - Logical Reasoning Questions and Answers. Logical Deduction: The phenomenon of deriving a conclusion from a single proposition or a set of given propositions, is known as logical deduction. The given propositions are also referred to as the premises. Two Inferential Processes of Deduction : I. Internet History Sourcebooks. Rules-of-reasoning. Rene Descartes I. Can you solve the prisoner hat riddle? - Alex Gendler. Philosophy: Friedrich Nietzsche: Quotes on Language, Metaphor, Metaphysics, Truth, Postmodernism. Nietzsche Pictures, Biography, Beyond Good and Evil, Greeks. Philosophy - Famous German Philosophers - Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 - 1900) Quotes and ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche. The Mortality Paradox. By Maria Popova. The Simple Logical Puzzle That Shows How Illogical People Are.

In the 1960s, the English psychologist Peter Wason devised an experiment that would revolutionize his field. Logical Reasoning - Coding Decoding. IQ Matrix. Struggling with Logical Reasoning? Watch this! Beating the IQ Test: Logical Reasoning. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Steven Pinker: The stuff of thought. CriticalThinking.org - Critical Thinking Model 1. To Analyze Thinking We Must Identify and Question its Elemental Structures Standard: Clarityunderstandable, the meaning can be grasped Could you elaborate further? Could you give me an example? Could you illustrate what you mean? Standard: Accuracyfree from errors or distortions, true How could we check on that? Logic Self-Taught: A Workbook (by Dr.P.) Logic Self-Taught: A Workbook © Katarzyna Paprzycka (dr.p) [Katazhyna Papzhytska] The Trivium, the Quadrivium & Logical Fallacies (Jan Irvin interviewed by Tony Myers) Logical Reasoning Fibonicci. A logical reasoning test is a type of aptitude test that is widely used by corporate employers to help assess candidates during their recruitment process.

Logical reasoning aptitude tests are designed to measure your ability to draw logical conclusions based on statements or arguments, and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of those arguments. Trivium & the Law of Three (1:3) Logic For Dummies Cheat Sheet. Working with sentential logic means working with a language designed to express logical arguments with precision and clarity. Rules of logical philosophy. Abstract Reasoning, Logical Reasoning, Inductive Reasoning - How To Ace Aptitude Tests 5/7. Inference Practice Test - LSAT Logical Reasoning. Rules of Inference and Logic Proofs. A proof is an argument from hypotheses (assumptions) to a conclusion. Rules of Inference. Logic. Philosophy - The Dicipline of Reasoning, Logic, Knowlege and Truth for Rational Thinking. TRIVIUM QUADRIVIUM..ROBERT X. Logical Deduction Important Formulas - Logical Reasoning Questions and Answers. Trivium Education Home - Trivium Education.com.

Law of mass action.