Rethinking the roots of altruism For decades, researchers working to understand how altruistic behavior evolved have relied on a concept known as inclusive fitness, which holds that organisms receive an evolutionary benefit—and are able to pass on their genes—through cooperative behavior. Now Harvard scientists say the theory is mathematically flawed and unnecessarily complicates the story of altruism's evolution. In a new study, Martin Nowak, a professor of mathematics and of biology, E.O. Wilson, the Pellegrino University Professor Emeritus, and Benjamin Allen, a research associate in mathematical biology and an assistant professor at Emmanuel College, find that not only is inclusive fitness impossible to calculate in most cases, but also that it often leads to incorrect conclusions. The research is described in a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "Our main goal is to develop a rigorous mathematical theory of evolution," Nowak said.
Industrial utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants Medicinal aromatic plants belong to a big plant group with a great interest due to its pharmaceutical, cosmetic and nutritional application. In addition, they are also an alternative to traditional crop with species in high demand at the current international market. It is expected to provide basic knowledge and skills related to production and chemical features of essences and extracts from local plants in Iberian Peninsula. The main purpose of this course is that students have an approach to economical importance, uses, botany and harvested processes of the most significant medicinal aromatic and seasoning specie plants. Imagen: UPM. Fotos: Mª Paz Arraiza
25 Psychological Life Hacks that Will Help You Gain the Advantage in Social Situations Social situations are among the most important in our lives. Yet, there is a huge chance that you are oblivious to the plethora of unwritten social rules that structure everybody’s behaviour. Failing to comply to these cultural imprints can cause irreversible damage. Just following them blindly will not get you ahead. Hacking them, however, will give you the best results possible. Therefore we bring to you these – 25 psychological life hacks that will help you gain the advantage in social situations
List of TCP and UDP port numbers This is a list of Internet socket port numbers used by protocols of the transport layer of the Internet Protocol Suite for the establishment of host-to-host connectivity. Originally, port numbers were used by the Network Control Program (NCP) in the ARPANET for which two ports were required for half-duplex transmission. Later, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) needed only one port for full-duplex, bidirectional traffic. The even-numbered ports were not used, and this resulted in some even numbers in the well-known port number range being unassigned. The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) also use port numbers. They usually use port numbers that match the services of the corresponding TCP or UDP implementation, if they exist.
6 Best Tips to Turn off Negative Thoughts How to Avoid Negative Thoughts How to stop negative thoughts How to Turn off Negative Thoughts Here are the best ways to avoid negative thoughts which looks like Negative Thoughts quotes. How to Cope with Uncomfortable Uncertainty Joy is not the only experience that people try to avoid, to their detriment. Many people cannot tolerate the feeling of uncertainty, and according to mounting evidence, this fear affects mood and health. Intolerance of uncertainty is linked with mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, researchers confirmed in a paper in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology; their results also revealed a strong link to panic disorder. List of plants used in herbalism This is a list of plants that have been used as herbal medicine. Plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases. At least 12,000 such compounds have been isolated so far; a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total. These phytochemicals are divided into (1) primary metabolites such as sugars and fats, which are found in all plants; and (2) secondary metabolites – compounds which are found in a smaller range of plants, serving a more specific function. For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination. A Aloe vera
How to Disagree March 2008 The web is turning writing into a conversation. Twenty years ago, writers wrote and readers read. The web lets readers respond, and increasingly they do—in comment threads, on forums, and in their own blog posts.