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1st edition " The Soul of Man under Socialism " is an 1891 essay by Oscar Wilde in which he expounds an anarchist worldview. [ 1 ] The creation of "The Soul of Man" followed Wilde's conversion to anarchist philosophy, following his reading of the works of Peter Kropotkin . [ 2 ]
Real freedom is a term coined by the political philosopher and economist Philippe Van Parijs . It expands upon notions of negative freedom by incorporating not simply institutional or other constraints on a person's choices, but also the requirements of physical reality, resources and personal capacity. To have real freedom, according to Van Parjis, an individual must:
Classical republicanism is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity . The earliest examples of the school were classical writers such as Aristotle , Polybius , and Cicero .
In political philosophy the social contract or political contract is a theory or model, originating during the Age of Enlightenment , that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual . [ 1 ] Social contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or magistrate (or to the decision of a majority), in exchange for protection of their remaining rights .
Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist , naturalist , tax resister , development critic , surveyor , historian, and leading transcendentalist . [ 1 ] He is best known for his book Walden , a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay Civil Disobedience , an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. Thoreau's books, articles, essays, journals, and poetry total over 20 volumes.
Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of The School of Athens , a fresco by Raphael .
Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( French: [ʒɑ̃ʒak ʁuso] ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher , writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism of French expression. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought. Rousseau's novel Émile: or, On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship.