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Emotional stability[edit] At the opposite end of the spectrum, individuals who score low in neuroticism are more emotionally stable and less reactive to stress. They tend to be calm, even-tempered, and less likely to feel tense or rattled. Although they are low in negative emotion, they are not necessarily high on positive emotion. Being high on positive emotion is an element of the independent trait of extraversion. Neurotic extraverts, for example, would experience high levels of both positive and negative emotional states, a kind of "emotional roller coaster". Measurement[edit] Like other personality traits, neuroticism is typically viewed as a continuous dimension rather than distinct. Extent of neuroticism is generally assessed using self-report measures, although peer-reports and third-party observation can also be used. Statement measures tend to comprise more words, and hence consume more research instrument space, than lexical measures. Psychopathology[edit] Neuropsychology[edit]

American Psychological Association (APA) Depressive realism Evidence for[edit] Evidence against[edit] When asked to rate both their performance and the performance of another, non-depressed individuals demonstrated positive bias when rating themselves but no bias when rating others. Criticism of the evidence[edit] Some have argued that the evidence is not more conclusive because there is no standard for "reality," the diagnoses are dubious, and the results may not apply to the real world.[33] Because many studies rely on self-report of depressive symptoms, the diagnosis of depression in these studies may not be valid as self-reports are known to often be biased, necessitating the use of other objective measures. See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Alloy,L.B., Abramson,L.Y. (1988). Further reading[edit] Rachel Adelson (April 2005).

Big Five personality traits Personality model consisting of five broad dimensions The Big Five personality traits, sometimes known as "the Five-Factor model of personality" or "OCEAN model", is a grouping of five unique characteristics used to study personality.[1] It has been developed from the 1980s onward in psychological trait theory. Starting in the 1990s, the theory identified five factors and ten values. Each of the five factors is broken up comparatively with two of the identified values. conscientiousness (efficient/organized vs. extravagant/careless)agreeableness (friendly/compassionate vs. critical/rational)neuroticism (sensitive/nervous vs. resilient/confident)openness to experience (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious)extraversion (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved) Those labels for the five factors may be remembered using the acronyms "OCEAN" or "CANOE". Development[edit] Descriptions of the particular personality traits[edit] Openness to experience[edit] Sample items[edit] Extraversion[edit]

APA Research Style Crib Sheet APA Research Style Crib Sheetby Russ DeweyGeorgia Southern University Psychology Department [Emeritus] [This page is a summary of rules for using APA style, updated for the 6th edition. I have made every effort to keep this document accurate, but readers have occasionally pointed out errors and inconsistencies which required correction. I am grateful to them and invite additional feedback to me at This document may be reproduced freely if this paragraph is included. --Russ Dewey, host of Psych Web []] APA Crib Sheet ContentsContents | Back to top APA style is the style of writing used by journals published by the American Psychological Association (APA). Some of the more commonly used rules and reference formats from the manual are listed here. The most notable additions and changes to sixth edition of the APA Manual (2001) include: Contents | Back to top Following is a summary of rules and reference examples in the APA style manual. Contents | Back to top Commas

Clairvius Narcisse Clairvius Narcisse (born c. 1922) is a Haitian man said to have been turned into a living zombie by a combination of drugs. After investigating reports of "zombies" (including Narcisse and a handful of others), researchers believed that Narcisse received a dose of chemical mixture containing tetrodotoxin (pufferfish venom) and bufotoxin (toad venom) to induce a coma which mimicked the appearance of death. He was then allowed to return to his home where he collapsed, "died", and was buried. The Canadian ethnobotanist Wade Davis, who did the research on tetrodotoxin [1] explains how this would have been done. The bokor (sorcerer) would have given Narcisse a powder containing the tetrodotoxin through abraded skin. According to the American Scientist interview, Narcisse came home to his village after 18 years of being assumed dead.[3] He was able to convince a few villagers and his sister that he was who he said he was. Jump up ^ Davis, Wade.

Existential crisis An existential crisis is a moment at which an individual questions the very foundations of their life: whether their life has any meaning, purpose or value.[1] This issue of the meaning and purpose of existence is the topic of the philosophical school of existentialism. Description[edit] An existential crisis may result from: The sense of being alone and isolated in the world;A new-found grasp or appreciation of one's mortality;Believing that one's life has no purpose or external meaning;Searching for the meaning of life;Shattering of one's sense of reality, or how the world is;Awareness of one's freedom and the consequences of accepting or rejecting that freedom;An extremely pleasurable or hurtful experience that leaves one seeking meaning; In existentialist philosophy, the term 'existential crisis' specifically relates to the crisis of the individual when they realize that they must always define their own lives through the choices they make. Handling existential crises[edit] J.

How to Stop Worrying Undoing the Worrying Habit Once acquired, the habit of worrying seems hard to stop. We're raised to worry and aren't considered "grown up" until we perfect the art. Teenagers are told: "you'd better start worrying about your future". To the extent that worrying is learned/conditioned behaviour, it can be undone. Centuries-old cultural conditioning has given us a nasty neurosis: the belief that happiness must be "earned". Laid on top of the first neurosis is the idea that spending money will make you happy. So: we never stop working, we never stop spending money, we're never really happy – ideal conditions, coincidentally, for a certain type of slave economy. You won't stop worrying if you think it serves you. The fight-or-flight response (FOF) is useful on rare occasions of real danger. Worrying is never useful. Rearranging the mental furniture This deceptively simple technique is effective because it bypasses the psychological obstacles mentioned above. Accelerator-Brake analogy

Dysfunctional family Perceptions[edit] A common misperception of dysfunctional families is the mistaken belief that the parents are on the verge of separation and divorce. While this is true in a few cases, often the marriage bond is very strong as the parents' faults actually complement each other. In short, they have nowhere else to go. Dysfunctional families have no social, financial or intellectual bounds. Examples[edit] Dysfunctional family members have common features and behavior patterns as a result of their experiences within the family structure. Common features[edit] Near universal[edit] Some features are common to most dysfunctional families: Non universal[edit] Though not universal among dysfunctional families, and by no means exclusive to them, the following features are typical of dysfunctional families: Specific examples[edit] In many cases, the following would cause a family to be dysfunctional: Parenting[edit] Unhealthy parenting signs[edit] Dysfunctional parenting styles[edit] "Kids as pawns"[edit]