Four temperaments 18th century depiction of the four temperamentsPhlegmatic and choleric (above)Sanguine and melancholic (below) The Four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic. Most formulations include the possibility of mixtures between the types where an individual's personality types overlap and they share two or more temperaments. The Greek physician Hippocrates (c. 460 – c. 370 BC) described the four temperaments as part of the ancient medical concept of humorism, that four bodily fluids affect human personality traits and behaviors. History and development Choleric, sanguine, melancholic, and phlegmatic temperaments: 17c., part of the Grande Commande Modern medical science has rejected the theories of the four temperaments, though their use persists as a metaphor within certain psychological fields. Four fundamental personality types Sanguine
Exploring Relationships - Vocabulary for ESL By Kenneth Beare There are all kinds of human relationships and these relationships will pay a role in discussions you will have. This page will help you explore a variety of relationships including romantic relationships, your friends and family and relationships at work. Start off by learning new vocabulary in groups and then applying that vocabulary in sentences, gap fills and conversation. Learning Vocabulary Discuss with your partner each of the vocabulary words and phrases below. continue reading below our video Vocabulary Exercises Exercise 1. - Use a word or phrase to fill in the gaps. love-interest, blood, nemesis, friendship, love, crush, casual, distant, unrequited love, acquaintance, steady, business partner Love is very different from _______. Let's face it: ______ is complicated. Exercise 2. - Use a verb to fill in the blanks in the sentences. My nemesis and I _______________ each other on a daily basis! Exercise 1 Exercise 2
John Beebe Professional interests and activities Beebe has also published in The Chiron Clinical Series, Fort Da, Harvest, The Inner Edge, Journal of Jungian Theory and Practice, Psychoanalytic Psychology, Psychological Perspectives, The Psychoanalytic Review, Quadrant, Spring, The Journal of Popular Film and Television, Theory and Psychology, and Tikkun, among others. He has contributed book chapters to The Anne Rice Reader, The Cambridge Companion to Jung, From Tradition to Innovation, House, Humanizing Evil, Initiation, Jungian Perspectives on Clinical Supervision, New Approaches to Dream Interpretation, Post-Jungians Today, Psyche & City, The Psychology of Mature Spirituality, Same-Sex Love, The Soul of Popular Culture, and Teaching Jung. An avid film buff, Beebe frequently draws upon American movies to illustrate how the various types of consciousness and unconsciousness interact to produce images of Self and shadow in the stories of our lives that Jung called individuation.
Useful Vocabulary for Common Topics in IELTS Speaking - Relationships At the very beginning, I want to provide you with some collocations to describe the positive and negative effects of relationship Advantages of being in a relationship To share laugh and happiness together Example: At the weekend I prefer spending time with my family, so we can share laugh and happiness together To have a person who be there for you whenever you need Example: Being in a relationship means you have a person who always be there for you when you are in trouble. Disadvantage of being in a relationship To have less time for other social relationships Example: When you are in a relationship, you will have less time for other social relationships There are also a wide range of useful phrases to talk about relationship (Love, Friendship, Family): Friendship: 1. Example: I have got to know Mary since I was a little boy, and we have been best friends until now. 2. Example: My girlfriend and I get on well with each other because we try to understand the other interests. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Humorism The four humors Humorism, or humoralism, is a now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids known as humors (UK: humours) in a person directly influences their temperament and health. From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by Greek, Roman and Persian physicians, and became the most commonly held view of the human body among European physicians until the advent of modern medical research in the nineteenth century. The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile (Gk. melan chole), yellow bile (Gk. chole), phlegm (Gk. phlegma), and blood (Gk. haima), and each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments. A humor is also referred to as a cambium (pl. cambia or cambiums). Four humors Paired qualities were associated with each humor and its season. History Origins Medicine
The Fed might have buried a key policy signal to investors in its March statement Humorist Samuel Clemens, American humorist who wrote under the pen name Mark Twain A humorist (British English: humourist) is an intellectual who uses humor in writing or public speaking. Humorists are distinct from comedians, who are show business entertainers whose business is to make an audience laugh, though some persons have occupied both roles in the course of their careers. The iconic humorist Mark Twain, pen name of Samuel Langhorn Clemens (1835–1910) was called the "greatest humorist this country has produced" in his New York Times obiturary, and William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature". The United States national cultural center, the John F. Distinction from a comedian According to Study.com, a humorist job requires a bachelor's degree, and according to US Bureau of Labor statistics, earns a 2016 median salary of US$29.44. Clowns was the key word because clowning was what I thought had become our collective fate. Comedians who become humorists
Intellectual Person who engages in critical thinking and reasoning Foreign Policy magazine named the lawyer Shirin Ebadi a leading intellectual for her work protecting human rights in Iran. An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about the reality of society, and who proposes solutions for the normative problems of society. Coming from the world of culture, either as a creator or as a mediator, the intellectual participates in politics, either to defend a concrete proposition or to denounce an injustice, usually by either rejecting or producing or extending an ideology, and by defending a system of values. Etymological background "Man of letters" "Intellectual" According to Thomas Sowell, as a descriptive term of person, personality, and profession, the word intellectual identifies three traits: Historical uses Generally speaking, the record of these scholar-gentlemen has been a worthy one. Public intellectual
Humour tendency of experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement Humour (British English) or humor (American English; see spelling differences) is the tendency of experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement. The term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which taught that the balance of fluids in the human body, known as humours (Latin: humor, "body fluid"), controlled human health and emotion. Theories Many theories exist about what humour is and what social function it serves. The benign-violation theory, endorsed by Peter McGraw, attempts to explain humour's existence. Others believe that 'the appropriate use of humour can facilitate social interactions'. Views Some claim that humour should not be explained. Non-satirical humour can be specifically termed droll humour or recreational drollery. Sociological factors Ancient Greece India In Arabic and Persian culture Muhammad al-Baqir's Hadith about humour Caribbean
Comedian Person who seeks to entertain an audience, primarily by making them laugh We ask you, humbly: don't scroll away. Hi, reader in Canada, it seems you use Wikipedia a lot; that's great! This is the 2nd appeal we've shown you. It's awkward, but this Monday we need your help. We don't have salespeople. Thank you! A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience by making them laugh. Since the 1980s, a new wave of comedy, called alternative comedy, has grown in popularity with its more offbeat and experimental style. Many comics achieve a cult following while touring famous comedy hubs such as the Just for Laughs festival in Montreal, the Edinburgh Fringe, and Melbourne Comedy Festival in Australia. History Ancient Greeks Comedians can be dated back to 425 BC, when Aristophanes, a comic author and playwright, wrote ancient comedic plays. Shakespearean comedy The English poet and playwright William Shakespeare wrote many comedies. Modern era Media