Criticism, Cheerleading, and Negativity - Nightly There is the perception, particularly in American culture, that criticism and negativity go hand-in-hand. We understand well the idea of being in favor or something, or against something, but we don’t particularly understand how criticism fits into this dichotomy. As someone with a penchant for criticism, I’ve often found myself misjudged as “being negative” when mere complaint is furthest from my intention. I’m here to explain myself and people like me. Criticism Is Not Negativity The reason a person is critical of a thing is because he is passionate about that thing. Negativity, in contrast, is not the product of passion. “That sucks” is negativity. Nobody Wants To Cook For A Chef Friends who are professional chefs (or even accomplished amateurs) describe a social phenomenon. As my own taste in spirits and beer have matured, I’ve experienced a variation on the above. A critic can certainly reduce her criticism to “good” or “bad”, but there’s far more context and nuance at work.
Social learning theory Social Learning Theory from notes on Ormond's Human Learning [ref: Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Social learning theory focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context . General principles of social learning theory follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. How the environment reinforces and punishes modeling: People are often reinforced for modeling the behavior of others . 1, The observer is reinforced by the model . 2. 3. 4. Contemporary social learning perspective of reinforcement and punishment: 1. 2. 3. Cognitive factors in social learning: Social learning theory has cognitive factors as well as behaviorist factors (actually operant factors). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Behaviors that can be learned through modeling: Many behaviors can be learned , at least partly , through modeling. Conditions necessary for effective modeling to occur: Bandura mentions four conditions that are necessary before an individual can successfully model the behavior of someone else: 1. 2. 3. 4. Effects of modeling on behavior: Self efficacy:
SARCASM IN RELATIONSHIPS - Nightly Sarcasm – a mocking or ironic remark (American Heritage Dictionary) Irony – the use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning (American Heritage Dictionary) Sarcasm is a large component of social interaction and conversation. Sarcasm is an indirect form of speech intentionally used to produce a particular dramatic effect on the listener (McDonald, 1999, p. 486). Many people relate sarcasm to irony, but there is a big difference between the two. The subject of sarcasm is complex because many factors are involved. Negative sarcasm, where positively worded utterances convey negative attitudes, is used frequently in everyday language. Sarcastic remarks, like this, are usually accompanied by exaggeration, and intensifiers may be used on the words that state the opposite of how one truly feels. Sarcasm has been found to be “morphologically simpler and more flexible to use than direct forms” (McDonald, 1999, 487). People have different views of sarcasm in relation to humor.
What Does Your Body Language Say About You? How To Read Signs and Recognize Gestures - Jinxi Boo - Jinxi Boo - Nightly Art by LaetitziaAs we all know, communication is essential in society. Advancements in technology have transformed the way that we correspond with others in the modern world. Because of the constant buzz in our technological world, it's easy to forget how important communicating face-to-face is. When conversing old-school style, it's not only speech we verbalize that matters, but what our nonverbal gestures articulate as well. Body language is truly a language of its own. 10% from what the person actually says40% from the tone and speed of voice50% is from their body language. Lowering one's head can signal a lack of confidence. Pushing back one's shoulders can demonstrate power and courageOpen arms means one is comfortable with being approached and willing to talk/communicate
TypeLogic Home Page - Nightly Eye Tricks - Nightly There is a trick you can do with your eyes in order to subliminally influence a person. It's described a few paragraphs below. But most of the techniques covered here are about how to watch for reactions in people's eyes in order to gain some insight into what's happening in their minds. So let's look at what you can determine from watching someone else's eyes. I start with obvious yet under-utilized clues... Basic Observation If you watch and note what people are watching, along with any reactions they have to what they see, you can learn a lot about them. Eyes and Subliminal Tricks Here's a simple experiment you can try right now. Practice this a bit and you can make your pupils instantly larger at will just by imagining certain scenes. You probably already knew that your pupils get smaller in bright light and larger when it gets darker, but they also grow larger when you are aroused, interested and receptive. This is not exclusively a sexual response. Now turn that around.