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Ludlow Massacre. The Ludlow Massacre was an attack by the Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel & Iron Company camp guards on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado, on April 20, 1914. Some two dozen people, including women and children, were killed. The chief owner of the mine, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., was widely criticized for incident. The massacre, the culmination of a bloody widespread strike against Colorado coal mines, resulted in the violent deaths of between 19 and 26 people; reported death tolls vary but include two women and eleven children, asphyxiated and burned to death under a single tent.[1] The deaths occurred after a daylong fight between militia and camp guards against striking workers.

Ludlow was the deadliest single incident in the southern Colorado Coal Strike, lasting from September 1913 through December 1914. The strike was organized by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) against coal mining companies in Colorado. Rev. Frank Little (unionist) Frank H. Little (1879 – August 1, 1917) was an American labor leader who was lynched in Butte, Montana, for his union and anti-war activities.

He joined the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in 1906, organizing miners, lumberjacks, and oil field workers. He was a member of the union's Executive Board at the time of his death. Little was born in 1879; not much is known about his family background, but he told friends that he had "Indian blood" and his mother was part Native American. By 1916, Little was a member of the IWW's General Executive Board.[1] Little was a strong opponent of World War I. Little refused to back down on this issue and argued that: "...the IWW is opposed to all wars, and we must use all our power to prevent the workers from joining the army.

" In early July 1917, Little arrived in Butte, Montana, to help organize a copper miners' union and lead a miners' strike against the Anaconda Copper Company. "Frank Little - A True American Hero. " Albert Parsons. Biography[edit] Early years[edit] Albert Parsons was born June 20, 1848,[1] in Montgomery, Alabama, one of the ten children of the proprietor of a shoe and leather factory who had originally hailed from Maine.[2] Parsons claimed to be the scion of pioneer English immigrants, with "the first Parsons family" arriving at Narragansett Bay in what is now the state of Rhode Island in 1632.[3] One of the Tompkins on his mother's side was with George Washington in the American Revolution and fought at the Battle of Brandywine.

He was also a descendant of Major General Samuel Holden Parsons of Massachusetts, another officer in the Revolution, as well as a Captain Parsons who received wounds at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Civil War and Reconstruction[edit] In this supercharged political atmosphere, Parsons' paper could not long survive and publication was soon terminated.[9] Chicago years[edit] Socialist period (1874–1879)[edit] Steel engraving of Albert R. Anarchist period (1880–1887)[edit] Legacy[edit] Haymarket affair. The Haymarket affair (also known as the Haymarket massacre or Haymarket riot) refers to the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square[2] in Chicago. It began as a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted to disperse the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and at least four civilians; scores of others were wounded.

The Haymarket affair is generally considered significant as the origin of international May Day observances for workers.[7][8] The site of the incident was designated a Chicago Landmark in 1992,[9] and a public sculpture was dedicated there in 2004. In addition, the Haymarket Martyrs' Monument at the defendants' burial site in nearby Forest Park was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1997.[10] Background[edit] May Day parade and strikes[edit] Trial[edit] French and Indian War. Not to be confused with the French and Indian Wars, the name given to a series of conflicts, which includes the following war.

The name French and Indian War is used mainly in the United States and refers to the two main enemies of the British colonists: the royal French forces and the various indigenous forces allied with them. British and European historians use the term the Seven Years' War, as do English speaking Canadians.[4] French Canadians call it La guerre de la Conquête (War of Conquest).[5][6] or the Fourth Intercontinental War.[7] The war was fought primarily along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from Virginia in the South to Nova Scotia in the North. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, called the Forks of the Ohio, and the site of the French Fort Duquesne and present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Origin of the name[edit] The conflict is known by multiple names. Events leading to war[edit]

Algonquin people. Range of Algonquins around year 1800 in green Algonquin family in their tent Though known by several names in the past, the most common term "Algonquin" has been suggested to derive from the Maliseet word elakómkwik (IPA: [ɛlæˈɡomoɡwik]): "they are our relatives/allies".[2][3] The much larger heterogeneous group of Algonquian-speaking peoples, who stretch from Virginia to the Rocky Mountains and north to Hudson Bay, was named after the tribe. Most Algonquins live in Quebec. The nine Algonquin bands in that province and one in Ontario have a combined population of about 11,000. Many Algonquins still speak the Algonquin language, called generally Anicinàpemowin or specifically Omàmiwininìmowin. Traditionally, the Algonquins were practitioners of Midewiwin (the right path).

History[edit] In the earliest oral history, the Algonquins say they migrated from the Atlantic coast. After contact with the Europeans, especially French and Dutch, the Algonquin nations became active in the fur trade. Mohawk people. Free Ships Passenger Lists Arriving in the USA 1630-1640. Mali Empire. The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni;[4] English: Niani), also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba[1] was a Mandinka empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to c. 1600. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa. The Mali Empire had many profound cultural influences on West Africa, allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River. It extended over a large area and consisted of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces. The Mali Empire[edit] The name Mālī (مالي) was recorded as the name of the empire by Ibn Battuta (d. 1368/9). Pre-Imperial Mali[edit] There are a few references to Mali in written literature of roughly contemporary age.

There has also been archaeological work done especially at Niani, reputed to be the capital of Mali, by Polish and Guinean archaeologists in the 1960s which revealed the remains of a substantial town dating back as far as the 6th century. The Kangaba Province[edit] History of Sierra Leone. The history of Sierra Leone began when the lands became inhabited at least 2,500 years ago. Sierra Leone played a significant part in modern African political liberty and nationalism, and became an independent nation in 1961. It began as a colony of freed American slaves on March 11, 1792, Blacks voted for the first time in elections, as did women.[1] Early history[edit] Archaeological finds show that Sierra Leone has been inhabited continuously for at least 2,500 years,[2] populated by successive movements from other parts of Africa.[3] The use of iron was introduced to Sierra Leone by the 9th century, and by AD 1000 agriculture was being practiced by coastal tribes.[4] Sierra Leone's dense tropical rainforest partly isolated it from other precolonial African cultures[5] and from the spread of Islam.

European contacts with Sierra Leone were among the first in West Africa. In the hilly savannah north of all of these were Susu and Fula. European contact and slavery (15th century)[edit] Barbot: A Voyage to Congo River. Slaves. Alonso de Sandoval: Seventeenth-Century Merchant of the Gospel, by M.E. Beers. William Byrd II. Colonel William Byrd II (March 28, 1674 – August 26, 1744) was a planter, slave-owner and author from Charles City County, Virginia. He is considered the founder of Richmond, Virginia. Byrd's life showed aspects of both British colonial gentry and an emerging American identity. His education included classics, apprenticeship with London global business agents, and legal studies. He was admitted to the bar and served for years as Virginia's official agent in London where he opposed increasing power of royal governors.

On his return to Virginia, he expanded his plantation holdings, was elected to the House of Burgesses, and served on Virginia Governor's Council, also known as Virginia's Council of State, from 1709 until his death in 1744. Biography[edit] William Byrd II was born in Henrico County, Virginia, and educated at Felsted School, England, for the law. William Byrd II was a fellow of the Royal Society of Great Britain. Byrd Park in Richmond is named for William Byrd II. Slave rebellion. A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. Slave rebellions have occurred in nearly all societies that practice slavery, and are amongst the most feared events for slaveholders.

The most successful slave rebellion in history was the 18th-century Haitian Revolution led by Toussaint L'Ouverture against their French colonial rulers, and which founded the extant country. Other famous historic slave rebellions have been led by the Roman slave Spartacus, as well as the thrall (Scandinavian slave) Tunni who rebelled against the Swedish monarch Ongentheow, a rebellion that needed Danish assistance to be quelled. In the ninth century, the poet-prophet Ali bin Muhammad led imported East African slaves in Iraq during the Zanj Rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate; Nanny of the Maroons was an 18th-century leader who rebelled against the British in Jamaica; and the Quilombos dos Palmares of Brazil flourished under Ganazumba (Ganga Zumba).

Middle East[edit] Europe and the Mediterranean[edit] Encyclopedia Virginia: Westmoreland Slave Plot (1687) Background Late in the seventeenth century, Virginia had been the site of a number of planned and actual revolts. On September 13, 1663, a conspiracy in that included African slaves, white indentured servants, and Virginia Indians was betrayed by one of its members.

Known as the Gloucester County Conspiracy (or, sometimes, the Servants' Plot), it resulted in the leaders being hanged. In April 1670, several residents of Gloucester, , and counties, presumably still worried about the intentions of their servants, petitioned the authorities to exclude from the colony any potential immigrants "who for notorious offenses have deserved to dye in England. " In 1676, Bacon's Rebellion, although led by Nathaniel Bacon, a member of the governor's Council, nevertheless included many laborers in the insurgents' rank and file, raising additional fears of servile revolts. On June 8, 1680, the General Assembly passed "An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections. " The Plot Aftermath Further Reading. History of Ghana. The Republic of Ghana is named after the medieval West African Ghana Empire.[1] The Empire became known in Europe and Arabia as the Ghana Empire after the title of its emperor, the Ghana.

The Empire appears to have broken up following the 1076 conquest by the Almoravid General Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar. A reduced kingdom continued to exist after Almoravid rule ended, and the kingdom was later incorporated into subsequent Sahelian empires, such as the Mali Empire several centuries later. Geographically, the ancient Ghana Empire was approximately 500 miles (800 km) north and west of the modern state of Ghana, and controlled territories in the area of the Sénégal River and east towards the Niger rivers, in modern Senegal, Mauritania and Mali. Historically, modern Ghanaian territory was the core of the Empire of Ashanti (or Asante), which was one of the most advanced states in sub-Sahara Africa in the 18th to 19th centuries, before colonial rule. Precolonial period[edit] Rise of the Ashanti[edit]

Ashanti Empire. The Ashanti (or Asante) Empire (or Confederacy), also Asanteman (1701–1957), was a West Africa sovereign state of the ethnic Akan people of Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central region, Eastern region, Greater Accra region and Western region currently South Ghana. The Ashantis (or Asantefo) are of Akan origin, the Ashantis are a powerful, militaristic and highly disciplined society of West Africa inhabiting an area known as "Akanland". Their military power, which came from effective strategy and an early adoption of European firearms, created an empire that stretched from central Ghana to present-day Benin and Ivory Coast, bordered by the Dagomba kingdom to the north and Dahomey to the east. Due to the empire's military prowess, wealth, architecture, sophisticated hierarchy and culture, the Ashanti empire had one of the largest historiographies by European, primarily British, sources of any indigenous Sub-Saharan African political entity.

Etymology and Origins[edit] History[edit] Asantehene[edit] Songhai Empire. The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was a Songhai state located in western Africa. From the mid-15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history.[4] This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group, the Songhai. Its capital was the city of Gao. A Songhai state had existed since the 11th century. Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger River in present day Niger and Burkina Faso. The Songhai state has existed in one form or another for over a thousand years, if one traces its rulers from the settlement of Gao to Songhai's vassal status under the Mali Empire to its continuation in Niger as the Dendi Kingdom. The Songhai are thought to have settled at Gao as early as 800 CE, but did not establish the city as their capital until the 11th century, during the reign of Dia Kossoi.

Imperial Songhai[edit] Sonni Ali[edit] Sonni Ali reigned from 1464 to 1492, after the death of Sulayman Dama. Askia the Great[edit] Culture[edit] Benin Empire. The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial Edo state in what is now Nigeria. It should not be confused with the modern-day country called Benin, formerly called Dahomey. Origin[edit] The original people and founders of the Benin Empire, the Edo people, were initially ruled by the Ogiso (Kings of the Sky) dynasty who called their land Igodomigodo.

The rulers or kings were commonly known as Ogiso. By the 15th century, Edo as a system of protected settlements expanded into a thriving city-state. It was not until the 15th century during the reign of Oba Ewuare the Great that the kingdom's administrative centre, the city Ubinu, began to be known as Benin City by the Portuguese, and would later be adopted by the locals as well. Oral tradition[edit] Bronze plaque of Benin Warriors with ceremonial swords. 16th–18th centuries, Nigeria. Nearly 36 known Ogiso are accounted for as rulers of the empire. Eweka I was the first 'Oba' or king of the new dynasty after the end of the era of Ogiso.

Cholula (Mesoamerican site) Powhatan. Pilgrim Ship Lists By Date. Iroquois. THE ROLES OF IROQUOIS WOMEN IN THE IROQUOIS TRIBE BY JAZMIN KAY. The Role of Women in Iroquois Culture. Richard Grenville. John Smith (explorer) Thomas Smith (governor of South Carolina) Pequot. John Winthrop. John Mason (c. 1600–1672) Of Plymouth Plantation. Cotton Mather. Roger Williams (theologian) Wampanoag people.

Metacomet. Arawak peoples. Encomienda. Bartolomé de las Casas.