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Lean manufacturing

Lean manufacturing
Overview[edit] The difference between these two approaches is not the goal itself, but rather the prime approach to achieving it. The implementation of smooth flow exposes quality problems that already existed, and thus waste reduction naturally happens as a consequence. The advantage claimed for this approach is that it naturally takes a system-wide perspective, whereas a waste focus sometimes wrongly assumes this perspective. Both lean and TPS can be seen as a loosely connected set of potentially competing principles whose goal is cost reduction by the elimination of waste.[5] These principles include: Pull processing, Perfect first-time quality, Waste minimization, Continuous improvement, Flexibility, Building and maintaining a long term relationship with suppliers, Autonomation, Load leveling and Production flow and Visual control. Origins[edit] Lean aims to make the work simple enough to understand, do and manage. A brief history of waste reduction thinking[edit] 20th century[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lean_manufacturing

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Just in time (business) Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business' return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban (看板?, Kanban) between different points, which are involved in the process, which tell production when to make the next part. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Total quality management Total quality management (TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to install and make permanent a climate in which an organization continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers. While there is no widely agreed-upon approach, TQM efforts typically draw heavily on the previously-developed tools and techniques of quality control. TQM enjoyed widespread attention during the late 1980s and early 1990s before being overshadowed by ISO 9000, Lean manufacturing, and Six Sigma. History[edit]

Standardized Work - Training Within Industry Service - TWI Original Manuals In Lean Manufacturing, you must fight your current thinking when it comes to the conventional wisdom of work standards. In doing so, you may make the leap to a different understanding of Standardized Work. These mental gymnastics are very difficult to achieve through shop floor practice however; mainstream Standardized Work training is very limited and current business trends tend to follow the mainstream. It is an uphill battle for Lean practitioners to work at implementing true standard work. Here is what we know about Standardized Work (SW) based on Toyota literature:

Flexibility (engineering) Flexibility is used as an attribute of various types of systems. In the field of engineering systems design, it refers to designs that can adapt when external changes occur. Flexibility has been defined differently in many fields of engineering, architecture, biology, economics, etc. In the context of engineering design one can define flexibility as the ability of a system to respond to potential internal or external changes affecting its value delivery, in a timely and cost-effective manner. Thus, flexibility for an engineering system is the ease with which the system can respond to uncertainty in a manner to sustain or increase its value delivery. Uncertainty is a key element in the definition of flexibility.

What is just-in-time manufacturing (JIT manufacturing Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing is a production model in which items are created to meet demand, not created in surplus or in advance of need. The purpose of JIT production is to avoid the waste associated with overproduction, waiting and excess inventory, three of the seven waste categories defined in the Toyota Production System (known in North America as the lean production model). The JIT concept was described by Henry Ford in his 1923 book, My Life and Work: We have found in buying materials that it is not worthwhile to buy for other than immediate needs. We buy only enough to fit into the plan of production, taking into consideration the state of transportation at the time. If transportation were perfect and an even flow of materials could be assured, it would not be necessary to carry any stock whatsoever.

Six Sigma The common Six Sigma symbol Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. It was developed by Motorola in 1986.[1][2] Jack Welch made it central to his business strategy at General Electric in 1995.[3] Today, it is used in many industrial sectors.[4]

Kaizen Kaizen (改善?), Japanese for "improvement" or "change for the best", refers to philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, business management or any process. It has been applied in healthcare,[1] psychotherapy,[2] life-coaching, government, banking, and other industries. When used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions, and involves all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics, that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain.[3] By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste (see lean manufacturing). Hypercompetition Hypercompetition is rapid and dynamic competition characterized by unsustainable advantage. It is the condition of rapid escalation of competition based on price-quality positioning, competition to protect or invade established product or geographic markets and competition based on deep pockets (financial capital) and the creation of even deeper pocketed alliances. Often a characteristic of new markets and industries, hypercompetition occurs when technologies or offerings are so new that standards and rules are in flux, resulting in competitive advantages and profits resulting from such competitive advantages cannot be sustained. In order to compete irrespective of how short-term the competitive advantage is, companies can implement a strategy based on finding and building temporary advantages through market disruption rather than trying to sustain an unsustainable advantage. Cost & Quality (C-Q)-leader or follower.

Continual improvement process A continual improvement process, also often called a continuous improvement process (abbreviated as CIP or CI), is an ongoing effort to improve products, services, or processes. These efforts can seek "incremental" improvement over time or "breakthrough" improvement all at once.[1] Delivery (customer valued) processes are constantly evaluated and improved in the light of their efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility. Some see CIPs as a meta-process for most management systems (such as business process management, quality management, project management, and program management). W.

Just-In-Time Manufacturing (JIT) Introduction Just-in-time manufacturing was a concept introduced to the United States by the Ford motor company. It works on a demand-pull basis, contrary to hitherto used techniques, which worked on a production-push basis. To elaborate further, under just-in-time manufacturing (colloquially referred to as JIT production systems), actual orders dictate what should be manufactured, so that the exact quantity is produced at the exact time that is required.

AME Spring Conference 2013 - Lean Conference - AME North American manufacturers find themselves at a crossroad...Listen to Industry Leaders To revitalize our industry we must learn how to achieve enterprise excellence through innovation around our people, processes and partners. In the Spring of 2013, in the heart of beautiful San Antonio, Texas, we will bring you the best examples of how forward-thinking leaders have achieved successes right here at home. Resource-based view The resource-based view (RBV) as a basis for the competitive advantage of a firm lies primarily in the application of a bundle of valuable tangible or intangible resources at the firm's disposal (Mwailu & Mercer, 1983 p142, Wernerfelt, 1984, p172; Rumelt, 1984, p557-558; Penrose, 1959[1]). To transform a short-run competitive advantage into a sustained competitive advantage requires that these resources are heterogeneous in nature and not perfectly mobile (:[2] p105-106; Peteraf, 1993, p180). Effectively, this translates into valuable resources that are neither perfectly imitable nor substitutable without great effort (Barney, 1991;:[2] p117). If these conditions hold, the bundle of resources can sustain the firm's above average returns.

Harley-Davidson's Just-in-Time (JIT) Journey Abstract: process control, and JIT. The company soon realized that in order to beat Japanese competition, it had to implement these practices as well. The company successfully implemented JIT practices and reaped several benefits. After spectacular growth in the 1990s and the early 2000s, Harley-Davidson again faced hard times from 2007. The case also looks at the challenges faced by the company in the latter part of the first decade of the new millennium, and how it was trying to focus on ‘continuous improvement' in a bid to bring itself back into profits.

Link Manufacturing Process and Product Life Cycles Summary by Christina Thayer Master of Accountancy Program University of South Florida, Fall 2004 PLC Main Page | Strategy Related Main Page | Structure and Restructure Main Page This article is the first in a two part sequence of papers (See note). The authors stress the importance of using a process life cycle in choosing among the different manufacturing and marketing options. The authors contend that simply using the traditional product life cycle for decision making can place too much emphasis on marketing alone. Individual companies will often find this to be too simplistic and misleading for strategic planning.

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