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Walter Lippmann

Walter Lippmann
Early life[edit] Career[edit] Lippmann was a journalist, a media critic and an amateur philosopher who tried to reconcile the tensions between liberty and democracy in a complex and modern world, as in his 1920 book Liberty and the News. In 1913, Lippmann, Herbert Croly, and Walter Weyl became the founding editors of The New Republic magazine. During World War I, Lippmann was commissioned a captain in the Army on June 28, 1918 and was assigned to the intelligence section of the AEF headquarters in France. Through his connection to Colonel House, he became an adviser to President Woodrow Wilson and assisted in the drafting of Wilson's Fourteen Points speech. Walter Lippmann in 1914 It was Lippmann who first identified the tendency of journalists to generalize about other people based on fixed ideas. Though a journalist himself, he did not assume that news and truth are synonymous. The basic problem of democracy, he wrote, was the accuracy of news and protection of sources. Death[edit] Related:  manufacturing consent -theoretical-Chomsky on Education

Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media Government and news media[edit] Editorial distortion is aggravated by the news media’s dependence upon private and governmental news sources. If a given newspaper, television station, magazine, etc., incurs governmental disfavor, it is subtly excluded from access to information. Consequently, it loses readers or viewers, and ultimately, advertisers. To minimize such financial danger, news media businesses editorially distort their reporting to favor government and corporate policies in order to stay in business. Editorial bias: five filters[edit] Herman and Chomsky's "propaganda model" describes five editorially distorting filters applied to news reporting in mass media: Size, Ownership, and Profit Orientation: The dominant mass-media outlets are large firms which are run for profit. Recent developments[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Herman, Edward S.; Chomsky, Noam. External links[edit]

Woodrow Wilson In his first term as President, Wilson persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass a legislative agenda that few presidents have equaled, remaining unmatched up until the New Deal in 1933.[2] This agenda included the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and an income tax. Child labor was curtailed by the Keating–Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. Wilson also had Congress pass the Adamson Act, which imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads.[3] Although considered a modern liberal visionary giant as President, Wilson was "deeply racist in his thoughts and politics" and his administration racially segregated federal employees and the Navy.[4][5] According to Wilson biographer A. Scott Berg, author of Wilson, an 815-page biography; "No matter what time you lived, some of the things Wilson said and did were racist. That being said, I do think that for his day, he was a centrist.

Ivy Lee Ivy Lee Ivy Ledbetter Lee (July 16, 1877 – November 9, 1934) is considered by some to be the founder of modern public relations. The term Public Relations is to be found for the first time in the preface of the 1897 Yearbook of Railway Literature. Early life and career[edit] The Parker and Lee firm lasted less than four years, but the junior partner, Lee, was to become one of the most influential pioneers in public relations. When Lee was hired full time by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1912, he was considered to be the first public relations person placed in an executive-level position. In 1919, he founded a public relations counseling office, Ivy Lee & Associates. During World War I, Lee served as a publicity director, and later as Assistant to the Chairman of, the American Red Cross.[1] Through his sister Laura, Lee was an uncle to novelist William S. Ivy Lee died of a brain tumor on the age of 57.[1] Effect on public relations[edit] Bibliography[edit] Writings by Ivy Ledbetter Lee:

Science of coercion: communication ... - Christopher Simpson Committee on Public Information The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917, to August 21, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. It primarily used the propaganda techniques to accomplish these goals. Organizational history[edit] Establishment[edit] President Woodrow Wilson established the Committee on Public Information (CPI) through Executive Order 2594 on April 13, 1917.[1] The committee consisted of George Creel (chairman) and as ex officio members the Secretaries of: State (Robert Lansing), War (Newton D. Activities[edit] Poster encouraging consumption of more cottage cheese as a replacement for meat. Organizational structure[edit] Media incidents[edit] Staff[edit]

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Project Censored Project Censored is a media research, education, and advocacy initiative housed at Sonoma State University since 1976. Among its journalistic activities is the publication of news stories omitted or censored by other media sources.[1] Published works[edit] Since 1993 Project Censored has published an annual trade paperback review of the “Top 25 Censored Stories of the Year.” Perception[edit] Walter Cronkite, the late, iconic veteran broadcast journalist, stated that "Project Censored is one of the organizations that we should listen to, to be assured that our newspapers and our broadcasting outlets are practicing thorough and ethical journalism Stephanie Salter in the San Francisco Chronicle defended Project Censored, saying that from their perspective, "any bias in the upper echelons of journalism looks to be skewed toward established political, economic and social power bases Controversy[edit] List of winners of Project Censored awards[edit] See also[edit] Secrecy News References[edit]

Ministry of Information (United Kingdom) Lord Beaverbrook (10 February 1918 – 4 November 1918)Lord Downham (4 November 1918 – 10 January 1919) Keep Calm and Carry On, a wartime poster from the MOI in 1939 which, although printed and distributed, was never posted. The Ministry of Information was formed on 4 September 1939, the day after Britain's declaration of war, and the first Minister was sworn in on 5 September 1939. The Ministry’s function was ‘To promote the national case to the public at home and abroad in time of war’ by issuing ‘National Propaganda’ and controlling news and information.[2] It was initially responsible for censorship, issuing official news, home publicity and overseas publicity in Allied and neutral countries. The Ministry was responsible for information policy and the output of propaganda material in Allied and neutral countries, with overseas publicity organised geographically. Campaigns carried out included themes such as the following:

Under Obama, an emerging global apparatus for drone killing Other commanders in chief have presided over wars with far higher casualty counts. But no president has ever relied so extensively on the secret killing of individuals to advance the nation’s security goals. The rapid expansion of the drone program has blurred long-standing boundaries between the CIA and the military. Lethal operations are increasingly assembled a la carte, piecing together personnel and equipment in ways that allow the White House to toggle between separate legal authorities that govern the use of lethal force. In Yemen, for instance, the CIA and the military’s Joint Special Operations Command pursue the same adversary with nearly identical aircraft. But they alternate taking the lead on strikes to exploit their separate authorities, and they maintain separate kill lists that overlap but don’t match. The convergence of military and intelligence resources has created blind spots in congressional oversight. Sen. Another reason for the lack of extensive debate is secrecy.

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