Early life Career Lippmann was a journalist, a media critic and an amateur philosopher who tried to reconcile the tensions between liberty and democracy in a complex and modern world, as in his 1920 book Liberty and the News. In 1913, Lippmann, Herbert Croly, and Walter Weyl became the founding editors of The New Republic magazine. During World War I, Lippmann was commissioned a captain in the Army on June 28, 1918 and was assigned to the intelligence section of the AEF headquarters in France. Through his connection to Colonel House, he became an adviser to President Woodrow Wilson and assisted in the drafting of Wilson's Fourteen Points speech. Walter Lippmann in 1914 It was Lippmann who first identified the tendency of journalists to generalize about other people based on fixed ideas. Though a journalist himself, he did not assume that news and truth are synonymous. The basic problem of democracy, he wrote, was the accuracy of news and protection of sources. Death
Related: manufacturing consent -theoretical-
• Chomsky on Education
Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass MediaGovernment and news media Editorial distortion is aggravated by the news media’s dependence upon private and governmental news sources. If a given newspaper, television station, magazine, etc., incurs governmental disfavor, it is subtly excluded from access to information. Consequently, it loses readers or viewers, and ultimately, advertisers. To minimize such financial danger, news media businesses editorially distort their reporting to favor government and corporate policies in order to stay in business. Editorial bias: five filters Herman and Chomsky's "propaganda model" describes five editorially distorting filters applied to news reporting in mass media: Size, Ownership, and Profit Orientation: The dominant mass-media outlets are large firms which are run for profit. Recent developments See also References Jump up ^ Herman, Edward S.; Chomsky, Noam. External links
William Walker (filibuster)Walker was born in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1824 to James Walker and his wife Mary Norvell. His father was a son of a Scottish immigrant. His mother was a daughter of Lipscomb Norvell, an American Revolutionary War officer from Virginia. One of Walker's maternal uncles was John Norvell, a US Senator from Michigan and founder of the Philadelphia Inquirer. William Walker graduated summa cum laude from the University of Nashville at the age of fourteen. At the age of 19, he received a medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania and practiced briefly in Philadelphia before moving to New Orleans to study law. In the summer of 1853, Walker traveled to Guaymas, seeking a grant from the government of Mexico to create a colony, using the pretext that it would serve as a fortified frontier, protecting US soil from Indian raids. Back in California, he was put on trial for conducting an illegal war, in violation of the Neutrality Act of 1794. Walker's flag of Nicaragua
Woodrow WilsonIn his first term as President, Wilson persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass a legislative agenda that few presidents have equaled, remaining unmatched up until the New Deal in 1933. This agenda included the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and an income tax. Child labor was curtailed by the Keating–Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. Wilson also had Congress pass the Adamson Act, which imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads. Although considered a modern liberal visionary giant as President, Wilson was "deeply racist in his thoughts and politics" and his administration racially segregated federal employees and the Navy. According to Wilson biographer A. Scott Berg, author of Wilson, an 815-page biography; "No matter what time you lived, some of the things Wilson said and did were racist. That being said, I do think that for his day, he was a centrist.
Anna FreudAnna Freud (3 December 1895 – 9 October 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays. Born in Vienna, she followed the path of her father and contributed to the newly born field of psychoanalysis. Alongside Melanie Klein, she may be considered the founder of psychoanalytic child psychology: as her father put it, child analysis 'had received a powerful impetus through "the work of Frau Melanie Klein and of my daughter, Anna Freud"'. Compared to her father, her work emphasized the importance of the ego and its ability to be trained socially. Biography The Vienna years Later on Anna Freud would say that she didn’t learn much in school; instead she learned from her father and his guests at home. In 1914 she passed the test to be a trainee at her old school, the Cottage Lyceum. The London years In 1938 the Freuds had to flee from Austria as a consequence of the Nazis' intensifying harassment of Jews in Vienna following the Anschluss by Germany.
Science of coercion: communication ... - Christopher SimpsonEmbracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (9780393320275): John W. DowerCommittee on Public InformationThe Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917, to August 21, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. It primarily used the propaganda techniques to accomplish these goals. Organizational history Establishment President Woodrow Wilson established the Committee on Public Information (CPI) through Executive Order 2594 on April 13, 1917. The committee consisted of George Creel (chairman) and as ex officio members the Secretaries of: State (Robert Lansing), War (Newton D. Activities Poster encouraging consumption of more cottage cheese as a replacement for meat. Organizational structure Media incidents Staff
Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud (/frɔɪd/; German pronunciation: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏ̯t]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist, now known as the father of psychoanalysis. Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881, and then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy at the Vienna General Hospital. Upon completing his habilitation in 1895, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology in the same year and became an affiliated professor (professor extraordinarius) in 1902. Psychoanalysis remains influential within psychotherapy, within some areas of psychiatry, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture.
Project CensoredProject Censored is a media research, education, and advocacy initiative housed at Sonoma State University since 1976. Among its journalistic activities is the publication of news stories omitted or censored by other media sources. Published works Since 1993 Project Censored has published an annual trade paperback review of the “Top 25 Censored Stories of the Year.” Perception Walter Cronkite, the late, iconic veteran broadcast journalist, stated that "Project Censored is one of the organizations that we should listen to, to be assured that our newspapers and our broadcasting outlets are practicing thorough and ethical journalism Stephanie Salter in the San Francisco Chronicle defended Project Censored, saying that from their perspective, "any bias in the upper echelons of journalism looks to be skewed toward established political, economic and social power bases Controversy List of winners of Project Censored awards See also Secrecy News References