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Leading research to understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases

Leading research to understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases
Related:  Disease understanding

Complexity Explorables | I herd you! This explorable illustrates the mechanism of herd immunity. When an infectious disease spreads in a population, an individual can be protected by a vaccine that delivers immunity. But there's a greater good. Press Play and keep on reading.... This is how it works This explorable is actually a set of four similar explorables, all of which model the spread of a disease in a population with \(N\) individuals. This model is known as the SIS-model, one of the simplest dynamical models for infectious disease dynamics. Vaccination is modelled this way: All individuals can spontaneously decide to vaccinate at a certain rate such that in equilibrium a fraction \(P\) of the population is vaccinated. Both, vaccine uptake and transmissibility of the disease can be controlled with a slider. The system is initially fully susceptible with a few infected individuals randomly scattered into the population. Model 1: The mixed population Model 2: The static network model Model 3: The dynamic network model C.

Cavernous sinus thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is the formation of a blood clot within the cavernous sinus, a cavity at the base of the brain which drains deoxygenated blood from the brain back to the heart. This is a rare disorder and can be of two types–septic cavernous thrombosis and aseptic cavernous thrombosis.[1] Most commonly the form is of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. The cause is usually from a spreading infection in the nose, sinuses, ears, or teeth. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus are often the associated bacteria. Cavernous sinus thrombosis symptoms include: decrease or loss of vision, chemosis, exophthalmos (bulging eyes), headaches, and paralysis of the cranial nerves which course through the cavernous sinus. Signs and symptoms[edit] The clinical presentation of CST can be varied. Classic presentations are abrupt onset of unilateral periorbital edema, headache, photophobia, and bulging of the eye (proptosis).[3] Other common signs and symptoms include: Cause[edit]

24999 Modelling of disease spread 24999 Modelling of disease spread The course is free of charge for master and PhD students from the European Union. Student from none EU countries and all professionals must pay tuition fees of 8250 DKK. Course information General course objectives Simulation modeling is a discipline often used in the veterinary field to investigate epidemiological questions. Learning objectives A student who has met the objectives of the course will be able to: Understand basic concepts about RUnderstand the basic principles in simulation modelingConstruct simple deterministic simulation modelsConstruct simple stochastic simulation modelsConstruct simple stochastic and dynamic simulation modelsModel simple mechanisms of disease spread between units (e.g. individuals or populations)Collect the results from the simulations in a proper way and present them visuallyRead and understand more complicated papers using the taught techniques Content Training in deterministic, stochastic and dynamic modeling. Remarks

3/2007: Sinus Infection, Headache, and Diplopia A 36-year-old female with a recently treated sinus infection presents with an 18-hour history of severe right-sided headache and new-onset diplopia. Examination reveals the finding pictured below. Aside from tenderness on palpation over the frontal and maxillary sinuses, the remainder of her physical and neurologic exam is unremarkable. TH What is the physical exam finding? a) Anisocoria; b) Facial nerve palsy; c) Horner Syndrome; d) Abducens palsy; or e) Intranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Discussion The answer is D: Abducens palsy, or isolated right cranial nerve VI palsy. Cranial nerve VI innervates the lateral rectus muscle, which is responsible for eye abduction, or temporal gaze. The sixth cranial nerve arises from the pons and courses through the subarachnoid space until it ascends the clivus and enters the cavernous sinus before exiting to the lateral rectus muscle.

Chemotherapy, Then and Now Since I am claiming that cancer research is doing something suboptimal, I’m going to have to examine what progress has actually been made in cancer research, and what results it had. Here, I’ll focus on the history of chemotherapy. Early history “A history of Cancer Chemotherapy” is an excellent article that summarizes the early history. Chemotherapy is actually a fairly recent development. The beginnings of modern chemotherapy were in the Chemical Warfare Service during World War II, which studied chemical weapons and discovered the tumor-regressing effects of nitrogen mustards. Sidney Farber, as part of a government drug screening program, and in collaboration with Harriet Kilte, discovered methotrexate and found it effective on children with leukemia. Post-war, Sloane-Kettering hired almost the entire Chemical Warfare Service for a drug development program. In the 1950’s, the CCNSC drug development program was also founded; it was the precursor to the modern pharmaceutical industry.

12/6/17: Clinical features of visual disturbances secondary to isolated sphenoid sinus inflammatory diseases Optic neuropathy from ISSIDs may arise from spread of sinus inflammation and infection, compression by an expansible lesion, or ischemia [5]. Visual loss may be acute or subacute, and the fundus often is normal or shows mild optic disc swelling, which might result in a misdiagnosis of “optic neuritis”. In the present series, patients who suffered vision loss without ptosis were all diagnosed as optic neuritis or optic neuropathy initially. Sphenoidotomy with drainage is the main procedure to diagnose and treat the ISSIDs [11]. The binocular diplopia from ISSIDs arises with involvement of one or more cranial nerve(s) and/or extraocular muscles by infiltration or compression from the inflammatory lesion. When presents as orbital apex syndrome, some important entities should be differentiated. There are some limitations in this study.

Counting DNA Nucleotides Figure 1. A 1900 drawing by Edmund Wilson of onion cells at different stages of mitosis. The sample has been dyed, causing chromatin in the cells (which soaks up the dye) to appear in greater contrast to the rest of the cell. Figure 2. A sketch of DNA's primary structure. Making up all living material, the cell is considered to be the building block of life. One class of the macromolecules contained in chromatin are called nucleic acids. The nucleic acid monomer is called a nucleotide and is used as a unit of strand length (abbreviated to nt). For example, Figure 2 shows a strand of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA), in which the sugar is called deoxyribose, and the only four choices for nucleobases are molecules called adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). For reasons we will soon see, DNA is found in all living organisms on Earth, including bacteria; it is even found in many viruses (which are often considered to be nonliving).

4/30/13: Dangerous diplopia: A case of pansinusitis

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) est une agence fédérale nord-américaine, département du National Institute of Health, organisme fédéral que l'on peut assimiler au ministère de la santé.
Le NIAID est responsable de la recherche biomédicale nord-américaine dans le domaine des maladies infectieuses et des affections allergiques.

Source: by epc Sep 3