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The Myth of Sisyphus

The Myth of Sisyphus
The Myth of Sisyphus is a philosophical essay by Albert Camus. It comprises about 119 pages and was published originally in 1942 in French as Le Mythe de Sisyphe; the English translation by Justin O'Brien followed in 1955. In the essay, Camus introduces his philosophy of the absurd: man's futile search for meaning, unity, and clarity in the face of an unintelligible world devoid of God and eternal truths or values. Does the realization of the absurd require suicide? Camus answers: "No. It requires revolt." Summary[edit] The essay is dedicated to Pascal Pia and is organized in four chapters and one appendix. Chapter 1: An Absurd Reasoning[edit] Camus undertakes to answer what he considers to be the only question of philosophy that matters: Does the realization of the meaninglessness and absurdity of life necessarily require suicide? For Camus, who set out to take the absurd seriously and follow it to its final conclusions, these "leaps" cannot convince. Chapter 2: The Absurd Man[edit]

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List of unsolved problems in philosophy This is a list of some of the major unsolved problems in philosophy. Clearly, unsolved philosophical problems exist in the lay sense (e.g. "What is the meaning of life?" Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab His pact with Muhammad bin Saud helped to establish the first Saudi state[5] and began a dynastic alliance and power-sharing arrangement between their families which continues to the present day in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.[6] The descendants of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, the Al ash-Sheikh, have historically led the ulama in the Saudi state,[7] dominating the state's clerical institutions.[8] Early years[edit] Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab is generally acknowledged[9] to have been born in 1703[10] into the sedentary Arab clan of Banu Tamim[11] (the Banu Tamim were not a nomadic tribe) in 'Uyayna, a village in the Najd region of the modern Saudi Arabia.[10][12] He was thought to have started studying Islam at an early age, primarily with his father, ʿAbd al-Wahhab[13][14] as his family was from a line of scholars of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence.[15] Following his early education in Medina, Abdul Wahhab traveled outside of the peninsula, venturing first to Basra. Early preaching[edit]

Cognitive closure (philosophy) It cannot be simply taken for granted that the human reasoning faculty is naturally suited for answering philosophical questions: the questions and their subject matter are one thing; and rational faculty, as a human trait, is another. From the fact that it is the best faculty we have… for doing philosophy it does not follow that it is a remotely good or adequate faculty for that purpose.[3]—Colin McGinn, Problems in Philosophy: The Limits of Inquiry When human minds interact with philosophical problems, especially those of the form 'How is X possible?', they are apt to go into one of four possible states. Either (i) they try to domesticate the object of puzzlement by providing a reductive or explanatory theory of it; or (ii) they declare it irreducible and hence not open to any levelling account; or (iii) they succumb to a magical story or image of what seems so puzzling; or (iv) they simply eliminate the source of trouble for fear of ontological embarrassment...

Absurdism Absurdism is very closely related to existentialism and nihilism and has its origins in the 19th century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, who chose to confront the crisis humans faced with the Absurd by developing existentialist philosophy.[3] Absurdism as a belief system was born of the European existentialist movement that ensued, specifically when the French Algerian philosopher and writer Albert Camus rejected certain aspects from that philosophical line of thought[4] and published his essay The Myth of Sisyphus. The aftermath of World War II provided the social environment that stimulated absurdist views and allowed for their popular development, especially in the devastated country of France. Overview[edit] "... in spite of or in defiance of the whole of existence he wills to be himself with it, to take it along, almost defying his torment.

Fourth dimension Fourth dimension may refer to: Science[edit] Four-dimensional space, the concept of a fourth dimensionSpacetime, the unification of time and space as a four-dimensional continuumMinkowski space, the mathematical setting for special relativity Literature[edit] Music[edit] Muhammad bin Saud Muhammad ibn Saud (Arabic: محمد بن سعود ‎) (d. 1765), also known as Ibn Saud, was the emir of Al-Dir'iyyah and is considered the founder of the First Saudi State and the Saud dynasty, which are technically named for his father – Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Migrin. Ibn Saud's family (then known as the Al Migrin) traced its descent to the tribe of 'Anizzah but, despite popular misconceptions, Muhammad ibn Saud was neither a nomadic bedouin nor was he a tribal leader. Rather, he was the chief (emir) of an agricultural settlement near modern-day Riyadh, called Diriyyah.[1] Furthermore, he was a competent and ambitious desert warrior.[1]

Dream argument The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence that the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore any state that is dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it is in fact reality. Synopsis[edit] In Eastern philosophy and especially Chinese philosophy, this type of argument is well known as "Zhuangzi dreamed he was a butterfly" (莊周夢蝶 Zhuāngzhōu mèng dié): One night, Zhuangzi (369 BC) dreamed that he was a carefree butterfly, flying happily. After he woke up, he wondered how he could determine whether he was Zhuangzi who had just finished dreaming he was a butterfly, or a butterfly who had just started dreaming he was Zhuangzi. This was a metaphor for what he referred to as a "great dream": He who dreams of drinking wine may weep when morning comes; he who dreams of weeping may in the morning go off to hunt.

Søren Kierkegaard Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (/ˈsɔrən ˈkɪərkəɡɑrd/ or /ˈkɪərkəɡɔr/; Danish: [ˈsɶːɐn ˈkiɐ̯ɡəɡɒːˀ] ( )) (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic, and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.[5] He wrote critical texts on organized religion, Christendom, morality, ethics, psychology and philosophy of religion, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and parables. Much of his philosophical work deals with the issues of how one lives as a "single individual", giving priority to concrete human reality over abstract thinking, and highlighting the importance of personal choice and commitment.[6] He was a fierce critic of idealist intellectuals and philosophers of his time, such as Swedenborg,[7] Hegel, Goethe, Fichte, Schelling, Schlegel, and Hans Christian Andersen.

A Happiness Tip From Aristotle According to Aristotle - the answer should be NO. My favorite philosopher buddy Aristotle says true happiness comes from gaining insight and growing into your best possible self. Otherwise all you’re having is immediate gratification pleasure - which is fleeting and doesnt grow you as a person. In a way the above scenario is a description of someone who does crack or drinks into oblivion.

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