These 40 Maps Will Help You Understand The World Better. Cool! Ever wonder which side of the road different parts of the world drive on?
How about what Pangea would look like with today’s international borders? What about where the TV remote is located? Well, this post has the answer to the first two questions and more--and they’re all in map form. For the remote, just check under the couch again. Check out these maps and see if things make more sense to you! 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) 7.) 8.) 9.) 10.) 11.) 12.) 13.) 14.) 15.) 16.) Thinking. System Theory.
Origin of language. The origin of language in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries.
In spite of this, there is no consensus on the ultimate origin or age of human language. One problem makes the topic difficult to study: the lack of direct evidence. Consequently, scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record or from archaeological evidence, from contemporary language diversity, from studies of language acquisition, and from comparisons between human language and systems of communication existing among other animals, particularly other primates.
It is generally agreed[by whom?] Philosophy of language. Language and thought. A variety of different authors, theories and fields purport influences between language and thought.
Many point out the seemingly common-sense realization that upon introspection we seem to think in the language we speak. A number of writers and theorists have extrapolated upon this idea. Scientific hypotheses Cognitive distortion. Cognitive distortions are thoughts that cognitive therapists believe cause individuals to perceive reality inaccurately.
These thinking patterns often are said to reinforce negative thoughts or emotions. Cognitive distortions tend to interfere with the way a person perceives an event. Because the way a person feels intervenes with how they think, these distorted thoughts can feed negative emotions and lead an individual affected by cognitive distortions towards an overall negative outlook on the world and consequently a depressive or anxious mental state. History In 1980, Burns published his book, Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy, (with a preface from Beck) and nine years later published The Feeling Good Handbook in 1989.
Defence mechanisms. A defence mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses. Defence mechanisms are unconscious and are not to be confused with conscious coping strategies. Sigmund Freud was one of the first proponents of this construct. Healthy persons normally use different defences throughout life.
An ego defence mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behaviour such that the physical or mental health of the individual is adversely affected. Function (engineering) In the lifecycle of engineering projects, there are usually distinguished subsequently: Requirements and Functional specification documents.
The Requirements usually specifies the most important attributes of the requested system. In the Design specification documents, physical or software processes and systems are frequently the requested functions. Simulation. Wooden, mechanical, horse simulator during World War I. Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games. Often, computer experiments are used to study simulation models. Conceptual model. A conceptual model is a model made of the composition of concepts, which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.
Some models are physical objects; for example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work like the object it represents. The term conceptual model may be used to refer to models which are formed after a conceptualization (generalization) process in the mind. Conceptual models represent human intentions or semantics[dubious ]. Conceptualization from observation of physical existence and conceptual modeling are the necessary means that humans employ to think and solve problems. Concepts are used to convey semantics during natural language based communication. Outline of thought. Nature of thought Thought (or thinking) can be described as all of the following: An activity taking place in a: brain – organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals (only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain).
It is the physical structure associated with the mind. mind – abstract entity with the cognitive faculties of consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory. Having a mind is a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms. Activities taking place in a mind are called mental processes or cognitive functions.computer (see automated reasoning, below) – general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. List of thought processes. Nature of thought Thought (or thinking) can be described as all of the following: An activity taking place in a: brain – organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals (only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain).
It is the physical structure associated with the mind. mind – abstract entity with the cognitive faculties of consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory. Having a mind is a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms. Activities taking place in a mind are called mental processes or cognitive functions.computer (see automated reasoning, below) – general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Strategy List: 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought. S-1 Thinking Independently Principle: Critical thinking is independent thinking, thinking for oneself.
Many of our beliefs are acquired at an early age, when we have a strong tendency to form beliefs for irrational reasons (because we want to believe, because we are praised or rewarded for believing). Critical thinkers use critical skills and insights to reveal and reject beliefs that are irrational. In forming new beliefs, critical thinkers do not passively accept the beliefs of others; rather, they try to figure things out for themselves, reject unjustified authorities, and recognize the contributions of genuine authorities. They thoughtfully form principles of thought and action; they do not mindlessly accept those presented to them.
Strategy List: 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought. Taboo. A taboo is a vehement prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is either too sacred or too accursed for ordinary individuals to undertake, under threat of supernatural punishment. Such prohibitions are present in virtually all societies. The word has been somewhat expanded in the social sciences to strong prohibitions relating to any area of human activity or custom that is sacred or forbidden based on moral judgment and religious beliefs.  "Breaking a taboo" is usually considered objectionable by society in general, not merely a subset of a culture. Etymology Not one of them would sit down, or eat a bit of any thing.... On expressing my surprise at this, they were all taboo, as they said; which word has a very comprehensive meaning; but, in general, signifies that a thing is forbidden. When any thing is forbidden to be eaten, or made use of, they say, that it is taboo.
Iconoclasm. "Triumph of Orthodoxy" over iconoclasm under the Byzantine empress Theodora. Late 14th – early 15th century icon. Iconoclasm[Note 1] is the destruction of religious icons and other images or monuments for religious or political motives. In time, the word, usually in the adjectival form, has also come to refer to aggressive statements or actions against any well-established status quo.
Politics of memory. The politics of memory is the political means by which events are remembered and recorded, or discarded. The terminology addresses the role of politics in shaping collective memory and how remembrances can differ markedly from the objective truth of the events as they happened. The influence of politics on memory is seen in the way history is written and passed on. Cyprus The two sides in the conflict in Cyprus maintain widely divergent and contrasting memories of the events that split the island. The term selective memory is applied by psychologists to people suffering from head injuries who retain some memories, but have amnesia about others.
The selectivity may also serve a political purpose, for example to justify the claims of one group over a competing group. Memory. Overview of the forms and functions of memory in the sciences In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. List of memory biases. List of common misconceptions.
List of fallacies. List of cognitive biases. Illustration by John Manoogian III (jm3). Cognitive biases can be organized into four categories: biases that arise from too much information, not enough meaning, the need to act quickly, and the limits of memory. List of cognitive biases. Spiritual Inquiry . com » 160 Zen stories.