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Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language
Related:  Profound Ideas

Language and thought A variety of different authors, theories and fields purport influences between language and thought. Many point out the seemingly common-sense realization that upon introspection we seem to think in the language we speak. A number of writers and theorists have extrapolated upon this idea. Scientific hypotheses[edit] Examples[edit] Counting[edit] Different cultures use numbers in different ways. Perhaps the most different counting system from that of modern Western civilisation is the “one-two-many” system used by the Pirahã people. Orientation[edit] Color[edit] Language may influence color processing. Other schools of thought[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Gordon, P., (2004).

Semantic theory of truth A semantic theory of truth is a theory of truth in the philosophy of language which holds that truth is a property of sentences.[1] Origin[edit] The semantic conception of truth, which is related in different ways to both the correspondence and deflationary conceptions, is due to work published by Polish logician Alfred Tarski in the 1930s. Tarski's theory of truth[edit] To formulate linguistic theories[2] without semantic paradoxes such as the liar paradox, it is generally necessary to distinguish the language that one is talking about (the object language) from the language that one is using to do the talking (the metalanguage). Tarski's material adequacy condition, also known as Convention T, holds that any viable theory of truth must entail, for every sentence "P", a sentence of the following form (known as "form (T)"): (1) "P" is true if, and only if, P. For example, (2) 'snow is white' is true if and only if snow is white. (3) 'Schnee ist weiß' is true if and only if snow is white.

Linguistics In the early 20th century Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics. According to him, parole is the specific utterance of speech, whereas langue refers to an abstract phenomenon that theoretically defines the principles and system of rules that govern a language.[9] This distinction resembles the one made by Noam Chomsky between competence and performance, where competence is individual's ideal knowledge of a language, while performance is the specific way in which it is used.[10] In classical Indian philosophy of language, the Sanskrit philosophers like Patanjali and Katyayana had distinguished between sphota (light) and dhvani (sound). In the late 20th century, French philosopher Jacques Derrida distinguished between the notions of speech and writing.[11] Nomenclature[edit] Variation and Universality[edit] Lexicon[edit] The lexicon is a catalogue of words and terms that are stored in a speaker's mind.

Cognitive distortion Cognitive distortions are thoughts that cause individuals to perceive reality inaccurately. According to the cognitive model of Beck, a negative outlook on reality, sometimes called negative schemas (or schemata), is a factor in symptoms of emotional dysfunction and poorer subjective well-being. Specifically, negative thinking patterns cause negative emotions.[3] During difficult circumstances, these distorted thoughts can contribute to an overall negative outlook on the world and a depressive or anxious mental state. Challenging and changing cognitive distortions is a key element of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). History[edit] In 1980 Burns published Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy[5] (with a preface by Beck), and nine years later The Feeling Good Handbook, both of which built on Beck's work. Main types[edit] Examples of some common cognitive distortions seen in depressed and anxious individuals. Always being right[edit] Being wrong is unthinkable. Blaming[edit] Personalizing[edit]

Recursive definition Four stages in the construction of a Koch snowflake. As with many other fractals, the stages are obtained via a recursive definition. A recursive definition (or inductive definition) in mathematical logic and computer science is used to define the elements in a set in terms of other elements in the set (Aczel 1978:740ff). A recursive definition of a function defines values of the functions for some inputs in terms of the values of the same function for other inputs. (n+1)! This definition is valid for all n, because the recursion eventually reaches the base case of 0. The recursion theorem states that such a definition indeed defines a function. An inductive definition of a set describes the elements in a set in terms of other elements in the set. 1 is in N.If an element n is in N then n+1 is in N.N is the intersection of all sets satisfying (1) and (2). There are many sets that satisfy (1) and (2) - for example, the set {1, 1.649, 2, 2.649, 3, 3.649, ...} satisfies the definition. Let .If

Language A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had in order for the later developmental stages to occur. Definitions[edit] As an object of linguistic study, "language" has two primary meanings: an abstract concept, and a specific linguistic system, e.g. Mental faculty, organ or instinct[edit] One definition sees language primarily as the mental faculty that allows humans to undertake linguistic behaviour: to learn languages and to produce and understand utterances. Formal symbolic system[edit] Tool for communication[edit]

Origin of language The origin of language in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries. In spite of this, there is no consensus on the ultimate origin or age of human language. One problem makes the topic difficult to study: the lack of direct evidence. Consequently, scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record or from archaeological evidence, from contemporary language diversity, from studies of language acquisition, and from comparisons between human language and systems of communication existing among other animals, particularly other primates. This shortage of empirical evidence has led many scholars to regard the entire topic as unsuitable for serious study. Approaches[edit] Approaches to the origin of language can be divided according to their underlying assumptions. Noam Chomsky is a prominent proponent of discontinuity theory. Language origin hypotheses[edit] Bow-wow.

true English[edit] Etymology[edit] From Middle English trewe, from Old English trīewe, (Mercian) trēowe (“trusty, faithful”), from Proto-Germanic *triwwiz (compare Saterland Frisian trjou (“honest”), Dutch getrouw and trouw, German treu, Norwegian and Swedish trygg (“safe, secure’”), from pre-Germanic *drewh₂yos, from Proto-Indo-European *drewh₂- (“steady, firm”) (compare Irish dearbh (“sure”), Old Prussian druwis (“faith”), Ancient Greek δροόν (droón, “firm”)), extension of *dóru (“tree”). More at tree. For the semantic development, compare Latin robustus (“tough”) from robur (“red oak”). Pronunciation[edit] (UK) IPA(key): /tɹuː/(US) enPR: trōō IPA(key): /tɹu/, [t͡ʃɹu](archaic) IPA(key): /tɹjuː/, /tɹɪw/Rhymes: -uː Adjective[edit] true (comparative truer or more true, superlative truest or most true) Antonyms[edit] Derived terms[edit] Related terms[edit] truth Translations[edit] The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers.

Communication In the realm of biology in general, communication often occurs through visual, auditory, or biochemical means. Human communication is unique for its extensive use of language. Non-human communication is studied in the field of biosemiotics. Nonverbal communication[edit] Verbal communication[edit] Effective verbal or spoken communication is dependent on a number of factors and cannot be fully isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as non-verbal communication, listening skills and clarification. Written communication and its historical development[edit] Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through the continuing progression of technology. The progression of written communication can be divided into three "information communication revolutions":[3] Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. Business communication[edit] Effective communication[edit] Physical barriers.

Defence mechanisms A defence mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses.[1] Defence mechanisms are unconscious and are not to be confused with conscious coping strategies.[2] Sigmund Freud was one of the first proponents of this construct.[3] Healthy persons normally use different defences throughout life. An ego defence mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behaviour such that the physical or mental health of the individual is adversely affected. The purpose of ego defence mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety and/or social sanctions and/or to provide a refuge from a situation with which one cannot currently cope.[9] One resource used to evaluate these mechanisms is the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40).[10][11] Structural model: Id, ego, and superego[edit] Freud believed that conflicts between these two structures resulted in conflicts associated with psychosexual stages.

Truth condition See also[edit] Slingshot argument Notes and references[edit] Jump up ^ Birner, Betty J. Iten, C. (2005). Telecommunication Earth station at the satellite communication facility in Raisting, Bavaria, Germany Visualization from the Opte Project of the various routes through a portion of the Internet A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909. Etymology[edit] The word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele (τηλε), meaning distant, far off, or afar,[11] and the Latin communicare, meaning to share. History[edit] Beacons and pigeons[edit] In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system (or semaphore line) between Lille and Paris.[19] However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres (six to nineteen miles). Modulation[edit]

Function (engineering) In the lifecycle of engineering projects, there are usually distinguished subsequently: Requirements and Functional specification documents. The Requirements usually specifies the most important attributes of the requested system. In the Design specification documents, physical or software processes and systems are frequently the requested functions. For advertising and marketing of technical products, the number of functions they can perform is often counted and used for promotion. For example a calculator capable of the basic mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, would be called a "four-function" model; when other operations are added, for example for scientific, financial, or statistical calculations, advertisers speak of "57 scientific functions", etc. Jump up ^ R.Barker, C.

Linguistic description All academic research in linguistics is descriptive; like all other sciences, its aim is to describe the linguistic world as it is, without the bias of preconceived ideas about how it ought to be.[1] Modern descriptive linguistics is based on a structural approach to language, as exemplified in the work of Leonard Bloomfield and others.[not verified in body] Linguistic description is often contrasted with linguistic prescription, which is found especially in education and in publishing. Description[edit] Challenges[edit] Accurate description of real speech is a difficult problem, and linguists have often been reduced to approximations. An extreme "mentalist" viewpoint denies that the linguistic description of a language can be done by anyone but a competent speaker. A linguistic description is considered descriptively adequate if it achieves one or more of the following goals of descriptive linguistics: See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Kordić, Snježana (2010). Bibliography[edit]

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