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Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language
Related:  The problems with philosophy

Language and thought A variety of different authors, theories and fields purport influences between language and thought. Many point out the seemingly common-sense realization that upon introspection we seem to think in the language we speak. A number of writers and theorists have extrapolated upon this idea. Scientific hypotheses[edit] Examples[edit] Counting[edit] Different cultures use numbers in different ways. Perhaps the most different counting system from that of modern Western civilisation is the “one-two-many” system used by the Pirahã people. Orientation[edit] Color[edit] Language may influence color processing. Other schools of thought[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Gordon, P., (2004).

Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of "Brainwashing" in China is a non-fiction book by psychiatrist Robert Jay Lifton on the psychology of brainwashing and mind control. Lifton's research for the book began in 1953 with a series of interviews with American servicemen who had been held captive during the Korean War. In addition to interviews with 25 Americans, Lifton also interviewed 15 Chinese who had fled their homeland after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. The book was first published in 1961 by Norton in New York.[1] The 1989 reprint edition was published by University of North Carolina Press.[2] Lifton is a Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York. Main points[edit] In the book, Lifton outlines the "Eight Criteria for Thought Reform": Milieu Control. Thought-terminating cliché[edit] Lifton said:[4][5] Examples[edit] General examples “Think of the children”

Philosophy of mind A phrenological mapping[1] of the brain – phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness, and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. The mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is commonly seen as one key issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body, such as how consciousness is possible and the nature of particular mental states.[2][3][4] Mind–body problem[edit] Our perceptual experiences depend on stimuli that arrive at our various sensory organs from the external world, and these stimuli cause changes in our mental states, ultimately causing us to feel a sensation, which may be pleasant or unpleasant. Arguments for dualism[edit]

Semantic theory of truth A semantic theory of truth is a theory of truth in the philosophy of language which holds that truth is a property of sentences.[1] Origin[edit] The semantic conception of truth, which is related in different ways to both the correspondence and deflationary conceptions, is due to work published by Polish logician Alfred Tarski in the 1930s. Tarski's theory of truth[edit] To formulate linguistic theories[2] without semantic paradoxes such as the liar paradox, it is generally necessary to distinguish the language that one is talking about (the object language) from the language that one is using to do the talking (the metalanguage). Tarski's material adequacy condition, also known as Convention T, holds that any viable theory of truth must entail, for every sentence "P", a sentence of the following form (known as "form (T)"): (1) "P" is true if, and only if, P. For example, (2) 'snow is white' is true if and only if snow is white. (3) 'Schnee ist weiß' is true if and only if snow is white.

Cognitive distortion Psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck who laid the groundwork for research on cognitive distortion. An exaggerated or irrational thought pattern involved in the onset and perpetuation of psychopathological states Challenging and changing cognitive distortions is a key element of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Definition[edit] Cognitive comes from the Medieval Latin cognitīvus, equivalent to Latin cognit(us), 'known'.[5] Distortion means the act of twisting or altering something out of its true, natural, or original state.[6] History[edit] In 1957 Albert Ellis, though he did not know it yet, would aid cognitive therapy in correcting cognitive distortions and indirectly helping David D. When Burns published Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy, it made Beck's approach to distorted thinking widely known and popularized.[13][14] Burns sold over four million copies of the book in the United States alone. Main types[edit] All-or-nothing thinking[edit] Overgeneralizing[edit] Filtering[edit] Criticism[edit]

Linguistic relativity The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its respective speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes. Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined to include two versions: Strong version: that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categoriesWeak version: that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behaviour. The term "Sapir–Whorf hypothesis" is a misnomer, because Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf never co-authored anything, and never stated their ideas in terms of a hypothesis. Definitional issues and debates[edit] The concept of linguistic relativity holds that cognitive processes, such as thought and experience, may be influenced by the categories and patterns of the language a person speaks. History[edit]

Axiology History[edit] Between the 5th and 6th century B.C., it was important in Greece to be knowledgeable if you were to be successful. Philosophers began to recognize that differences existed between the laws and morality of society. Socrates held the belief that knowledge had a vital connection to virtue, making morality and democracy closely intertwined. Socrates' student, Plato furthered the belief by establishing virtues which should be followed by all. With the fall of the government, values became individual, causing skeptic schools of thought to flourish, ultimately shaping a pagan philosophy that is thought to have influenced and shaped Christianity. Axiological Issues in Communication Studies[edit] Communication theorists seek to contribute to mutual intelligence about the anatomy and operation of human communication. Those who take a conventional scientific approach believe that research must be free of values in order to be valid. See also[edit] References[edit] Further reading[edit]

Recursive definition Four stages in the construction of a Koch snowflake. As with many other fractals, the stages are obtained via a recursive definition. A recursive definition (or inductive definition) in mathematical logic and computer science is used to define the elements in a set in terms of other elements in the set (Aczel 1978:740ff). A recursive definition of a function defines values of the functions for some inputs in terms of the values of the same function for other inputs. (n+1)! This definition is valid for all n, because the recursion eventually reaches the base case of 0. The recursion theorem states that such a definition indeed defines a function. An inductive definition of a set describes the elements in a set in terms of other elements in the set. 1 is in N.If an element n is in N then n+1 is in N.N is the intersection of all sets satisfying (1) and (2). There are many sets that satisfy (1) and (2) - for example, the set {1, 1.649, 2, 2.649, 3, 3.649, ...} satisfies the definition. Let .If

Origin of language The origin of language in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries. In spite of this, there is no consensus on the ultimate origin or age of human language. One problem makes the topic difficult to study: the lack of direct evidence. Consequently, scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record or from archaeological evidence, from contemporary language diversity, from studies of language acquisition, and from comparisons between human language and systems of communication existing among other animals, particularly other primates. This shortage of empirical evidence has led many scholars to regard the entire topic as unsuitable for serious study. Approaches[edit] Approaches to the origin of language can be divided according to their underlying assumptions. Noam Chomsky is a prominent proponent of discontinuity theory. Language origin hypotheses[edit] Bow-wow.

Logocracy Logocracy is the rule of—or government by—words. It is derived from the Greek λόγος (logos) - "word" and from κράτος (kratos) - to "govern". The term can be used either positively, ironically or negatively. Historical examples[edit] "unknown to these people themselves, their government is a pure unadulterated LOGOCRACY or government of words. The Soviet Union was described by Nobel Prize winner Czesław Miłosz,[3] as a logocracy.[4] It was for example, according to Christine D. Totalitarianism, according to political theorist Hannah Arendt, can be considered a logocracy, since in it ideas are no longer important, just how they are expressed.[8] Academic Yahya Michot has referred to Sunni Islam as a "popular" or "laic logocracy", in that it is government by the word of the Koran.[9] See also[edit] Videocracy - the power of the image, an important modern extension to logocracy but also a potential opposing force.[10]Political Correctness - rule of correct terminology.[11] References[edit]

Epistemology A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge Epistemology (; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning 'knowledge', and -logy) is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge. Epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Etymology[edit] The word epistemology is derived from the ancient Greek epistēmē meaning "knowledge" and the suffix -logy, meaning "logical discourse" (derived from the Greek word logos meaning "discourse"). The title of one of the principal works of Fichte is ′Wissenschaftslehre,′ which, after the analogy of technology ... we render epistemology. It was properly introduced in the philosophical literature by Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier in his Institutes of Metaphysics (1854):[8] This section of the science is properly termed the Epistemology—the doctrine or theory of knowing, just as ontology is the science of being... Defining knowledge[edit] Belief[edit]

true English[edit] Etymology[edit] From Middle English trewe, from Old English trīewe, (Mercian) trēowe (“trusty, faithful”), from Proto-Germanic *triwwiz (compare Saterland Frisian trjou (“honest”), Dutch getrouw and trouw, German treu, Norwegian and Swedish trygg (“safe, secure’”), from pre-Germanic *drewh₂yos, from Proto-Indo-European *drewh₂- (“steady, firm”) (compare Irish dearbh (“sure”), Old Prussian druwis (“faith”), Ancient Greek δροόν (droón, “firm”)), extension of *dóru (“tree”). More at tree. For the semantic development, compare Latin robustus (“tough”) from robur (“red oak”). Pronunciation[edit] (UK) IPA(key): /tɹuː/(US) enPR: trōō IPA(key): /tɹu/, [t͡ʃɹu](archaic) IPA(key): /tɹjuː/, /tɹɪw/Rhymes: -uː Adjective[edit] true (comparative truer or more true, superlative truest or most true) Antonyms[edit] Derived terms[edit] Related terms[edit] truth Translations[edit] The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers.

Defence mechanisms A defence mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses.[1] Defence mechanisms are unconscious and are not to be confused with conscious coping strategies.[2] Sigmund Freud was one of the first proponents of this construct.[3] Healthy persons normally use different defences throughout life. An ego defence mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behaviour such that the physical or mental health of the individual is adversely affected. The purpose of ego defence mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety and/or social sanctions and/or to provide a refuge from a situation with which one cannot currently cope.[9] One resource used to evaluate these mechanisms is the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40).[10][11] Structural model: Id, ego, and superego[edit] Freud believed that conflicts between these two structures resulted in conflicts associated with psychosexual stages.

Framing (social sciences) In the social sciences, framing is a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups, and societies organize, perceive, and communicate about reality. Framing is the social construction of a social phenomenon often by mass media sources, political or social movements, political leaders, or other actors and organizations. It is an inevitable process of selective influence over the individual's perception of the meanings attributed to words or phrases. The effects of framing can be seen in many journalism applications. When one seeks to explain an event, the understanding often depends on the frame referred to. Though the former might result from a speck of dust (resulting in an involuntary and not particularly meaningful reaction), the latter would imply a voluntary and meaningful action (to convey humor to an accomplice, for example). In the field of communication, framing defines how news media coverage shapes mass opinion.

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