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Connectivism is a hypothesis of learning which emphasizes the role of social and cultural context. Connectivism is often associated with and proposes a perspective similar to Vygotsky's 'zone of proximal development' (ZPD), an idea later transposed into Engeström's (2001) Activity theory.[1] The relationship between work experience, learning, and knowledge, as expressed in the concept of ‘connectivity, is central to connectivism, motivating the theory's name.[2] It is somewhat similar to Bandura's Social Learning Theory that proposes that people learn through contact. The phrase "a learning theory for the digital age"[3] indicates the emphasis that connectivism gives to technology's effect on how people live, communicate and learn. Nodes and links[edit] The central aspect of connectivism is the metaphor of a network with nodes and connections.[4] In this metaphor, a node is anything that can be connected to another node such as an organization, information, data, feelings, and images.

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Technologically Externalized Knowledge and Learning Let’s take a step back and consider how well we are using learning technology in contrast with what is possible given advances over the last decade. Ideologies influence design, then design constrains future options. We don’t have to look very far to see examples of this simple rule: classrooms, design of organizational work activities, politics, and the operation of financial markets. Social constructivism Social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge that applies the general philosophical constructivism into social settings, wherein groups construct knowledge for one another, collaboratively creating a small culture of shared artifacts with shared meanings. When one is immersed within a culture of this sort, one is learning all the time about how to be a part of that culture on many levels. It is emphasised that culture plays a large role in the cognitive development of a person. Its origins are largely attributed to Lev Vygotsky.

Learning theory (education) A classroom in Norway. Learning also takes places in many other settings. Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed, and knowledge and skills retained.[1][2] Main article: Behaviorism The term "behaviorism" was coined by John Watson (1878–1959). Constructionism (learning theory) Seymour Papert Seymour Papert defined constructionism in a proposal to the National Science Foundation entitled Constructionism: A New Opportunity for Elementary Science Education as follows: "The word constructionism is a mnemonic for two aspects of the theory of science education underlying this project. From constructivist theories of psychology we take a view of learning as a reconstruction rather than as a transmission of knowledge.

Mobile Consider some of the basic symbols of education in the United States: the textbook, the chalkboard, and the apple. Thanks to technological innovations and cultural forces, we’ve seen textbooks supplanted by videos and e-books, SMART Boards replace chalkboards, and the apple on the teacher’s desk pushed aside by the latest gadgets from, well, Apple. Just as our classrooms have changed significantly since the 1800s, so have our ideas about the purpose of schools. Our views on education were defined by John Dewey's theory, which states—and I'm simplifying—that the general purpose of school is to transfer knowledge and prepare young people to participate in America’s democratic society.

Connectivism and its Critics: What Connectivism Is Not Posted to the CCK08 Blog, September 10, 2008. There are some arguments that argue, essentially, that the model we are demonstrating here would not work in a traditional academic environment. - Lemire - Fitzpatrick - Kashdan These arguments, it seems to me, are circular. They defend the current practice by the current practice. Yes, we know that in schools and universities students are led through a formalized and designed instructional process. Constructivism Jean Piaget: founder of Constructivism In past centuries, constructivist ideas were not widely valued due to the perception that children's play was seen as aimless and of little importance. Jean Piaget did not agree with these traditional views, however. He saw play as an important and necessary part of the student's cognitive development and provided scientific evidence for his views.

Andragogy Knowles' theory of andragogy is an attempt to develop a theory specifically for adult learning. Knowles emphasizes that adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decisions. Adult learning programs must accommodate this fundamental aspect. Andragogy makes the following assumptions about the design of learning: (1) Adults need to know why they need to learn something (2) Adults need to learn experientially, (3) Adults approach learning as problem-solving, and (4) Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value. In practical terms, andragogy means that instruction for adults needs to focus more on the process and less on the content being taught. Strategies such as case studies, role playing, simulations, and self-evaluation are most useful.

Paulo Freire and informal education contents: introduction · contribution · critique · further reading and references · links Paulo Freire (1921 – 1997), the Brazilian educationalist, has left a significant mark on thinking about progressive practice. His Pedagogy of the Oppressed is currently one of the most quoted educational texts (especially in Latin America, Africa and Asia). 8 Crucial Resources For Flipped Classrooms Have you “flipped” yet? My colleagues have this week; it’s PSSA week in Pennsylvania (PSSAs are standardized tests.). That’s not the flipped I meant, however. I meant, have you flipped your classroom yet?

From Connected Educator to Connected Classroom Posted by Brianna Crowley on Thursday, 10/09/2014 Two weeks ago I shared my journey to becoming a connected educator. It's one I share with a mixture of pride and relief--pride for the huge changes I've seen in myself as a result of my PLN and relief knowing that I never again have to feel isolated in my professional learning. This year I embarked on a new challenge. One that strives to include my students in this powerful world of connected learning. One that offers to model for them the power of social networking beyond their peers. Social network service A social networking service (also social networking site or SNS) is a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his or her social links, and a variety of additional services. Social network sites are web-based services that allow individuals to create a public profile, to create a list of users with whom to share connections, and view and cross the connections within the system.[1] Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging.

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