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Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding Fathers of the United States
Terminology[edit] Within the large group known as the "Founding Fathers", there are two key subsets, those who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and those who framed the Constitution in 1787. A further subset includes those who signed the Articles of Confederation.[1] Some historians define the "Founding Fathers" to mean a larger group, including not only the Signers and the Framers but also all those who, whether as politicians, jurists, statesmen, soldiers, diplomats, or ordinary citizens, took part in winning American independence and creating the United States of America.[2] Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington.[3] Three of these (Hamilton, Madison and Jay) were authors of the The Federalist Papers, advocating ratification of the Constitution. Background[edit] Political experience[edit] Related:  American RevolutionWikipedia Akittyaj

Common Sense (pamphlet) Common Sense[1] is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775–76 that inspired people in the Thirteen Colonies to declare and fight for independence from Great Britain in the summer of 1776. In clear, simple language it explained the advantages of and the need for immediate independence. It was published anonymously on January 10, 1776, at the beginning of the American Revolution and became an immediate sensation. It was sold and distributed widely and read aloud at taverns and meeting places. Washington had it read to all his troops, which at the time had surrounded the British army in Boston. Common Sense presented the American colonists with an argument for freedom from British rule at a time when the question of whether or not to seek independence was the central issue of the day. Publication history Thomas Paine began writing Common Sense in late 1775 under the working title of Plain Truth. Sections I. II. III. IV. Paine's arguments against British rule Impact See also Notes References

Maliki The Mālikī (Arabic: مالكي‎) madhhab is one of the schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. It was founded by Malik bin Anas and it considers the rulings from ulema from Medina to be sunnah.[1] Its adherents reside mostly in North Africa, West Africa, Kuwait, Bahrain,[2] in some parts of Saudi Arabia, Oman and other Middle Eastern countries, and parts of India.[3] The Murabitun World Movement also follows the Maliki school. In the past, it was also followed in parts of Europe under Islamic rule, particularly Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily. History[edit] Although Ibn Anas himself was a native of Medina, his school faced fierce competition for followers in the Muslim east, with the Shafi'i, Hanbali and Zahiri schools all enjoying more success than Malik's school.[6] It was eventually the Hanafi school, however, that earned official government favor from the Abbasids. The Malikis enjoyed considerably more success in the Muslim west. Principles[edit] Differences[edit]

United States Constitution The Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and ratified by conventions in eleven States. It went into effect on March 4, 1789.[2] Since the Constitution was adopted, it has been amended twenty-seven times. The first ten amendments (along with two others that were not ratified at the time) were proposed by Congress on September 25, 1789, and were ratified by the necessary three-fourths of the States on December 15, 1791.[3] These first ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights. The Constitution is interpreted, supplemented, and implemented by a large body of constitutional law. History First government The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States of America.[6] It was drafted by the Continental Congress in mid-1776 to late 1777, and formal ratification by all 13 states was completed in early 1781. Congress was paralyzed. Constitutional Convention Ratification

Declaration of Independence - Thomas Jefferson The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, announcing that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were no longer a part of the British Empire. Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War.… (more) The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, announcing that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were no longer a part of the British Empire. (less)

American Revolution The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America. The American Revolution was the result of a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations in American society, government and ways of thinking. Starting in 1765 the Americans rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them; protests continued to escalate, as in the Boston Tea Party of 1773, and the British responded by imposing punitive laws—the Coercive Acts—on Massachusetts in 1774. The other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts and set up a Congress to take charge. The Patriots fought the British and loyalists in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). Origins Background to 1763 The British began colonizing North America in the 17th century. 1764–1766: Taxes imposed and withdrawn

Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University Princess Nora bint Abdulrahman University (PNU; Arabic: جامعة الأميرة نورة بنت عبد الرحمن‎) is a public women’s university located in the capital city of Riyadh in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is the largest university for women in the world. The university offers diplomas, bachelor and postgraduate degrees. It has over 42,000 students in 15 colleges, a preparatory year program for all first year undergraduate students, an Arabic Language Institute (for non-speakers of Arabic), a Deanship of Community Service and Continuous Education and a Community College.[4] History and Name[edit] The university first existed in 1970 as the first College of Education for women in the Kingdom. In 2004, the birth of the first all-women university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was announced: Riyadh University for Women and unified all 6 of the original colleges in the city of Riyadh. Colleges and Departments[edit] Health Colleges Science Colleges Humanities Colleges Preparatory Year Program (PYP):

Medieval History Lectures: Dr. Lynn H. Nelson Please take into consideration the purpose and audience for which the lecture notes listed above were written. For a good many years, I taught a three-credit-hour freshman survey entitled Introduction to Medieval History to enrollments of room-size - generally three hundred students. During those years, the University of Kansas maintained an open enrollment policy in which all graduates from accredited Kansas high schools were admitted to the University. Since the only history courses required by the State of Kansas at the secondary level were in American History, students enrolling for this course varied widely in their knowledge of the European past. Consequently, my lectures were both basic and episodic, concentrating on major events and topics that would prepare the students for further enrollments in Humanities courses and attempting to demonstrate that the study of History could be both useful and enjoyable.

The Federalist Papers - Publius The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution. Seventy-seven of the essays were published serially in The Independent Journal and The New York Packet between October 1787 and August 1788. A compilation of these and eight others, called The Federalist, was published in 1788 by J. and A. McLean. The Federalist Papers serve as a primary source for interpretation of the Constitution, as they outline the… (more) The Federalist Papers serve as a primary source for interpretation of the Constitution, as they outline the philosophy and motivation of the proposed system of government. (less)

Coming of the American Revolution: First Continental Congress News of the Coercive Acts arrives in the colonies in the spring of 1774. In response to the punitive measures outlined in the Boston Port Bill, Bostonians propose to cease all trade with Britain, as set forth in the Solemn League and Covenant. Haunted by the failure of earlier commercial resistance initiatives, the other twelve colonies (as well as most towns in Massachusetts) are wary of yielding to Boston's leadership. Massachusetts delegates John Adams, Samuel Adams, and Thomas Cushing begin their journey to Philadelphia on 10 August, surveying the political landscape and meeting fellow delegates along their route. On 6 September, delegates are informed that General Thomas Gage has seized provincial military supplies stored in Charlestown, Massachusetts, causing quite a stir among the colonists there. The Congress next considers implementing nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption movements to force Parliament to repeal the Coercive Acts.

David Hackworth He was also a prominent military journalist. During his time as a journalist, Hackworth investigated many subjects, including an assertion into the accused improper wearing of ribbons and devices by Admiral Mike Boorda, an investigation which is speculated to have driven Boorda to committing suicide. Early life and entrance into the military[edit] Demobilized after the Armistice Agreement in Korea, Hackworth became bored with civilian life after two years of college and reentered the U.S. Army in 1956 as a captain. Interwar service[edit] When Hackworth returned to active duty, the expanding "Cold War" substantially changed the structure of the Army from what he had known. After attending college in several locations, in 1964 Hackworth graduated from Austin Peay State University with a bachelor of science degree in history, after which he attended the Command and General Staff College.[2][3] Vietnam service[edit] Fire Support Base Danger, Dinh Tuong Province, March 1969. Controversy[edit]

TheHistoryNet: From the World's Largest History Magazine Publisher First Continental Congress Proceedings of the First Continental Congress The first Continental Congress met in Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia, from September 5, to October 26, 1774. Carpenter's Hall was also the seat of the Pennsylvania Congress. The objectives of the body were not entirely clear but, with such leadership as was found there, a core set of tasks was carried out. The first few weeks were consumed in discussion and debate. On October 14, the Declaration and Resolves established the course of the congress, as a statement of principles common to all of the colonies. Several days later, on the 20th, came The Association, which was patterned after the Virginia Association and others that followed. By the end of 1774 Delegates

Kokoda Track Location of the Kokoda Track within Papua New Guinea The Kokoda Trail or Track is a single-file foot thoroughfare that runs 96 kilometres (60 mi) overland — 60 kilometres (37 mi) in a straight line — through the Owen Stanley Range in Papua New Guinea. The track was the location of the World War II battle between Japanese and Australian forces in 1942. Hot, humid days with intensely cold nights, torrential rainfall and the risk of endemic tropical diseases such as malaria make it a challenging trek. Hiking the trail normally takes between four and twelve days; the fastest recorded time is 16 hours 34 minutes. History[edit] The track was first used by European miners in the 1890s to access the Yodda Kokoda goldfields. Crossing Eora Creek on the Kokoda Track After the war, the track fell into disuse and disappeared in many places. The Kokoda Track Foundation, established in 2003, helps villages along the track with education and healthcare. Popularity and deaths[edit] In October 2009, Mr.