Researchers Make Huge Step Forward In Understanding How The Brain Processes Emotions. Emotion can be evoked by different things for different people, including visual stimulus and different taste sensations.
How can feelings be tied into sensory perception? A new study led by Cornell University’s Adam Anderson has found that emotions are encoded by the brain in a very standardized way. The results of the study were published in Nature Neuroscience. 2014/05/27 Journey of Discovery Starts toward Understanding and Treating Networks of the Brain. May 27, 2014 SUBNETS program includes two complementary research pathways that emphasize neural plasticity and single-neuron recording Work on DARPA’s Systems-Based Neurotechnology for Emerging Therapies (SUBNETS) program is set to begin with teams led by UC San Francisco (UCSF), and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).
The SUBNETS program seeks to reduce the severity of neuropsychological illness in service members and veterans by developing closed-loop therapies that incorporate recording and analysis of brain activity with near-real-time neural stimulation. The program, which will use next-generation devices inspired by current Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) technology, was launched in support of President Obama’s brain initiative.
UCSF and MGH will oversee teams of physicians, engineers, and neuroscientists who are working together to develop advanced brain interfaces, computational models of neural activity, and clinical therapies for treating networks of the brain. Brain Injury Releases Astonishing Mathematical Powers. When two thugs bashed Jason Padgett outside a bar they weren't trying to release skills he never knew he had, less still conduct one of the most groundbreaking neuroscience experiments of the century.
But as it turned out, that's what they did. Hopefully the events will never be repeated, but they opened up new worlds for Padgett and lines of inquiry for neuroscientists. Pre-bashing, Padgett not only had no particular mathematical skill and no interest in the subject. “I cheated on everything and I never cracked a book” is how the self-confessed former "jock" describes his approach to math. After recovering from concussion resulting from being knocked to the ground and repeatedly kicked in the head, Padgett saw the world in an entirely different way. Controlling brain waves to improve vision. Have you ever accidentally missed a red light or a stop sign?
Or have you heard someone mention a visible event that you passed by but totally missed seeing? "When we have different things competing for our attention, we can only be aware of so much of what we see," said Kyle Mathewson, Beckman Institute Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Illinois. "For example, when you're driving, you might really be concentrating on obeying traffic signals. " Controlling brain waves to improve vision. Boosting depression-causing mechanisms in brain increases resilience, surprisingly. A new study points to a conceptually novel therapeutic strategy for treating depression.
Instead of dampening neuron firing found with stress-induced depression, researchers demonstrated for the first time that further activating these neurons opens a new avenue to mimic and promote natural resilience. The findings were so surprising that the research team thinks it may lead to novel targets for naturally acting antidepressants.
Results from the study are published online April 18 in the journal Science. Researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai point out that in mice resilient to social defeat stress (a source of constant stress brought about by losing a dispute or from a hostile interaction), their cation channel currents, which pass positive ions in dopamine neurons, are paradoxically elevated to a much greater extent than those of depressed mice and control mice. Sand Pile Model of the Mind Grows in Popularity. From Quanta Magazine (find original story here).
In 1999, the Danish physicist Per Bak proclaimed to a group of neuroscientists that it had taken him only 10 minutes to determine where the field had gone wrong. Perhaps the brain was less complicated than they thought, he said. Perhaps, he said, the brain worked on the same fundamental principles as a simple sand pile, in which avalanches of various sizes help keep the entire system stable overall — a process he dubbed “self-organized criticality.” Human brains 'hard-wired' to link what we see with what we do. Your brain's ability to instantly link what you see with what you do is down to a dedicated information 'highway', suggests new UCL-led research.
For the first time, researchers from UCL (University College London) and Cambridge University have found evidence of a specialized mechanism for spatial self-awareness that combines visual cues with body motion. Standard visual processing is prone to distractions, as it requires us to pay attention to objects of interest and filter out others. The new study has shown that our brains have separate 'hard-wired' systems to visually track our own bodies, even if we are not paying attention to them. In fact, the newly-discovered network triggers reactions even before the conscious brain has time to process them. Computer Program Allows the Blind to 'See' With Sound. A man blind since birth is taking up a surprising new hobby: photography.
His newfound passion is thanks to a system that turns images into sequences of sound. The technology not only gives “sight” to the blind, but also challenges the way neurologists think the brain is organized. In 1992, Dutch engineer Peter Meijer created vOICe, an algorithm that converts simple grayscale images into musical soundscapes. (The capitalized middle letters sound out “Oh, I see!”). The system scans images from left to right, converting shapes in the image into sound as it sweeps, with higher positions in the image corresponding to higher sound frequencies. Severed Corpus Callosum. Brain process takes paper shape. A paper-based device that mimics the electrochemical signalling in the human brain has been created by a group of researchers from China.
The thin-film transistor (TFT) has been designed to replicate the junction between two neurons, known as a biological synapse, and could become a key component in the development of artificial neural networks, which could be utilised in a range of fields from robotics to computer processing. The TFT, which has been presented today in the journal Nanotechnology, is the latest device to be fabricated on paper, making the electronics more flexible, cheaper to produce and environmentally friendly. The artificial synaptic TFT consisted of indium zinc oxide (IZO), as both a channel and a gate electrode, separated by a 550-nanometre-thick film of nanogranular silicon dioxide electrolyte, which was fabricated using a process known as chemical vapour deposition.
Researchers discover how brain regions work together, or alone. Stanford researchers may have solved a riddle about the inner workings of the brain, which consists of billions of neurons, organized into many different regions, with each region primarily responsible for different tasks.
The various regions of the brain often work independently, relying on the neurons inside that region to do their work. At other times, however, two regions must cooperate to accomplish the task at hand. The riddle is this: what mechanism allows two brain regions to communicate when they need to cooperate yet avoid interfering with one another when they must work alone? New Neuroscience Journal to Launch. The publisher of The Journal of Neuroscience has laid out plans for an open-access, online-only journal for brain research. WIKIMEDIA, NICOLAS ROUGIERThe Society for Neuroscience (SfN), which publishes The Journal of Neuroscience, has given its flagship journal a competitor.
The publisher announced that a new open-access, online-only journal for reporting brain research could launch as early as this fall. A New Method to Measure Consciousness Proposed. Leonardo Da Vinci, in his Treatise on Painting (Trattato della Pittura), advises painters to pay particular attention to the motions of the mind, moti mentali. “The movement which is depicted must be appropriate to the mental state of the figure,” he advises; otherwise the figure will be considered twice dead: “dead because it is a depiction, and dead yet again in not exhibiting motion either of the mind or of the body.”
Francesco Melzi, student and friend to Da Vinci, compiled the Treatise posthumously from fragmented notes left to him. The vivid portrayal of emotions in the paintings from Leonardo’s school shows that his students learned to read the moti mentali of their subjects in exquisite detail. Associating an emotional expression of the face with a “motion of the mind” was an astonishing insight by Da Vinci and a surprisingly modern metaphor. Today we correlate specific patterns of electrochemical dynamics (i.e. Brain Neuron Degeneration via Mercury. Part 1 - Phantoms In The Brain (Episode 1) Neuroscience 5e: Chapter 1 Summary. The brain can be studied by methods ranging from genetics and molecular biology to behavioral testing of human subjects.
In addition to an ever increasing store of knowledge about the anatomical organization of the nervous system, many of the most notable successes of modern neuroscience have come from understanding nerve cells as the structural and functional units of the nervous system. Studies of the cellular architecture and molecular components of neurons and glia have revealed much about their individual functions at a detailed level, providing a basis for understanding how nerve cells are organized into neural circuits, and these circuits into neural systems that process specific types of information pertinent to sensory processing and behavioral responses.
Grégoire Courtine: The paralyzed rat that walked. See-through brains. Synchronized virtual reality heartbeat triggers out-of-body experiences. New research demonstrates that triggering an out-of-body experience (OBE) could be as simple as getting a person to watch a video of themselves with their heartbeat projected onto it. According to the study, it's easy to trick the mind into thinking it belongs to an external body and manipulate a person's self-consciousness by externalizing the body's internal rhythms. The findings could lead to new treatments for people with perceptual disorders such as anorexia and could also help dieters too. In a typical out-of-body experience a person either experiences a feeling of floating outside of their body or of viewing it from outside of themselves.
Human Cells Make Mice Smarter. In spring a band of brainy rodents made headlines for zipping through mazes and mastering memory tricks. Scientists credited the impressive intellectual feats to human cells transplanted into their brains shortly after birth. But the increased mental muster did not come from neurons, the lanky nerve cells that swap electrical signals and stimulate muscles. Support cells found in human brain make mice smarter. First mind-reading implant gives rats telepathic power - life - 28 February 2013. Split brain with one half atheist and one half theist. When Proof Is Not Enough: Eben Alexander's Proof of Heaven and the Problem of Objectivity in Science. Scientists debunk the IQ myth: Notion of measuring one's intelligence quotient by singular, standardized test is highly misleading. Scientists make monkeys smarter using brain implants. Could you be next?
Dragonflies have human-like 'selective attention' Spaun, the most realistic artificial human brain yet. Neuroscience of Music - How Music Enhances Learning - Neuroplasticity. Neural interaction in periods of silence. From Cooling System to Thinking Machine. Scientists Afflict Computers with Schizophrenia to Better Understand the Human Brain. Brain drain: Hackers could dip their phishing poles into your mind. Does Self-Awareness Require a Complex Brain? Brain might not stand in the way of free will - life - 06 August 2012. Brain imaging can predict how intelligent you are: 'Global brain connectivity' explains 10 percent of variance in individual intelligence. The Brain Set Free. Daniel Wolpert: The real reason for brains.
Your Color Red Really Could Be My Blue. Neuroscience: The mind reader. Mind control: the advent of neuroscience in marketing. Multiple thought channels may help brain avoid traffic jams. Rebecca Saxe: How we read each other's minds. Researchers show that memories reside in specific brain cells.
The split brain: A tale of two halves. Head Transplant: The Truly Disturbing Truly Real Story. The cockroach beatbox. Mapping out a new era in brain research. Study: Sleeplessness Causes Our Mental Circuits to Overheat. New brain connections form in clusters during learning. Solve for X: Mary Lou Jepsen on imaging the mind's eye. Gene therapy boosts brain repair for demyelinating diseases. Drug quickly reverses Alzheimer's symptoms in mice. Visual-cortex simulator sees animals as humans do - tech - 03 April 2007. 'Matrix'-style effortless learning? Vision scientists demonstrate innovative learning method. Engineers build a nanoscale device for brain-inspired computing. Simon Lewis: Don't take consciousness for granted. Buddha's Brain: Neuroplasticity and Meditation. Amping Up Brain Function: Transcranial Stimulation Shows Promise in Speeding Up Learning.
Neuroimaging fails to demonstrate ESP is real (1/15/2008) Why We Sleep. Steven Pinker on the myth of violence. Jeff Hawkins on how brain science will change computing. Brain imaging reveals the movies in our minds.