background preloader

POOP: An Interdisciplinary Unit

Facebook Twitter

How The Toilet Changed History. The Ultimate Guide to Toilets and Travel. Updated January 14, 2017. Whether appealing (a 5* resort) or appalling (squat toilets anywhere), toilets around the world serve the same purpose, and there's no avoiding them. So just how much is there to say about using the toilet as you travel? You'd be surprised. Did you know, for example, that you can't flush toilet paper in many countries' toilets? Or that you'll have to flush some toilets by throwing an entire bucket of water into the bowl?

Or that many countries use a water spray to clean themselves rather than toilet paper? Or that, as mentioned above, the squat toilet rules supreme in many countries outside of the United States? Let's talk toilets for travelers. How to Deal With Squat Toilets Around the World Every new traveler fears the squat toilet, but I'm hear to tell you that it's not a big deal. continue reading below our video Seriously. A squat toilet is just how it sounds. The first time you encounter them they can be a little shocking, but after that, you'll be a pro. River Blindness. Unit Conversion: Water Use | Science | Classroom Resources | PBS Learning Media. Screen 1: Fresh Water Lake (Image)Hands in Water - © Aramanda/Fotolia; Waterfalls - © Gina Sanders/Fotolia. Screen 2: Shower Running Water (Image)©Sergey Peterman - Screen 4: Shower Estimation (Video)Adapted from ZOOM: "Shower Estimation.

" ©2012, 2005 WGBH Educational Foundation. Screen 5: Unit Conversion (Video)Adapted from ZOOM: "Shower Estimation. " Screen 6: Cup to Gallon Conversion (Image)©2012 WGBH Educational Foundation. Cup to Gallon Equation (Image)©2012 WGBH Educational Foundation. Screen 7: Food and Gallon Measurements (Image)©2012 WGBH Educational Foundation. Capacity, Time, and Distance Ratios (Image)©2012 WGBH Educational Foundation. 4 Days to 96 Hours Equation (Image)©2012 WGBH Educational Foundation.

Feet to Miles Equation (Image)©2012 WGBH Educational Foundation. Screen 8: Conserving Water at Home (Document)Image: ©Paul Fleet/Fotolia Text: ©2012 WGBH Educational Foundation. Screen 9: Boy Writing in Notebook (Image)©Anyka/Fotolia Screen 11: How Much Water Do You Need To Survive? | Wonderopolis. Humans can live for weeks and sometimes months without food. Going without water, however, is a different story… Two-thirds of the human body (by weight) consists of water. Humans need water for circulation, respiration, and converting food to energy.

After oxygen, water is the body’s most important nutrient. Your body loses water constantly through sweat, urine, and even breathing. In extreme heat, an adult can lose almost half-a-gallon of water through sweat alone. Surprisingly, it’s also easy to become dehydrated in very cold environments. So how long can you survive without water? To stay healthy, you need to continually replenish your fluid supply. If you love animals, you may already know that camels are famous for being able to go long periods of time — in the desert heat — without drinking. So how do they do it? Raped, murdered girls reveal horrific risks for India's poor. Katra Shahadatganj (India) (AFP) - The nightly trek into the fields behind their homes under the cover of darkness leave the women of Katra Shahadatganj in northern India feeling scared and vulnerable at the best of times. But the abduction, gang-rape and lynching of two teenage girls as they went to relieve themselves last Tuesday have added a terrifying new dimension to their daily ordeal.

Maharani Devi, whose family earns a meagre living as farm labourers, said younger women were often harassed by men, and never went into the wheat and peppermint fields alone. "Ever since this incident we are now even more scared than before," said Devi, 40, whose three-room house, like most in the district, has no toilet. "It's really not good, most women are reluctant even going with just one companion," the mother of five told AFP on Sunday. "Some younger women who used to go out to the farms to give food or water to the men in the afternoon have (now) even stopped," said 75-year-old Om Vati. Indian teen girls gang-raped and hanged from a tree: police.

By Nita Bhalla NEW DELHI (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Indian police have arrested one man and are looking for four other suspects after two teenage girls were gang-raped and then hanged from a tree in a village in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, police said on Thursday. The two cousins, who were from a low-caste Dalit community and aged 14 and 15, went missing from their village home in Uttar Pradesh's Budaun district when they went out to go to the toilet on Tuesday evening. The following morning, villagers found the bodies of the two teenagers hanging from a mango tree in a nearby orchard. "We have registered a case under various sections, including that of rape, and one of the accused has been taken into custody.

There were five people involved, one has been arrested and we are looking for the others," Budaun's Superintendent of Police Man Singh Chouhan told reporters. Chouhan said a post-mortem confirmed the two minors were raped and died from the hanging. Indian teen girls gang-raped and hanged from a tree: police. 5 Ways Toilets Change the World.

The loo, the W.C., the lavatory, the privy, the porcelain god -- while it goes by many names, the toilet -- one of life's most mundane objects -- plays a fundamental role in society. Yet more than a third of the world's population lacks access to even a basic pit latrine, and the problem may get worse. A recent statistical analysis predicts the world population will hit 11 billion by 2100. From preventing illness to fostering education, here are five ways toilets change the world: 1. Keeping people healthy Improper disposal of human waste can cause devastating illness. Contaminated water causes diarrheal diseases such as cholera, which afflict many people on a chronic basis. Diseases caused by fecal contamination also lead to malnourishment, low birth weight, cognitive problems and stunted growth. 2.

Trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness, is carried by a fly that breeds exclusively on human excrement. 3. Is There Poop on the Moon- ft. Smarter Every Day. Celebrate Toilet Day. No invention has saved more lives than a toilet. More than 80% of sewage in developing countries is discharged untreated, polluting rivers, lakes and coastal areas. All because there is no infrastructure - a toilet, or city utilities - to flush away yesterday's meal. But that's not all. Toilets bring dignity, privacy, safety and health. Created in 2001, World Toilet Day is observed annually on 19 November. This international day of action aims to break the taboo around toilets and draw attention to the global sanitation challenge. uses the entire week to draw attention to the issues and engage our supporters in doing the same. Toilet Day Documentary Resources Download a poster of toilets - A Toilet Day Field Guide. Interactive Game Show with Matt Damon. Strike With Me. Treating Fistulas at Edna Adan Hospital | Watch Independent Lens Online. Human Waste Used by 200 Million Farmers, Study Says. August 21, 2008 Facing water shortages and escalating fertilizer costs, farmers in developing countries are using raw sewage to irrigate and fertilize nearly 49 million acres (20 million hectares) of cropland, according to a new report—and it may not be a bad thing. While the practice carries serious health risks for many, those dangers are eclipsed by the social and economic gains for poor urban farmers and consumers who need affordable food, the study authors say. Nearly 200 million farmers in China , India , Vietnam , sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America harvest grains and vegetables from fields that use untreated human waste.

Ten percent of the world's population relies on such foods, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Health Risks The report focused on poor urban areas, where farms in or near cities supply relatively inexpensive food. Most of these operations draw irrigation water from local rivers or lakes. Waste Into Water. Cow Dung, Urine as Medicine? - Research centers in India are developing a line of dung- and urine-based medicines. - In Ahmedabad, the raw materials are generated on site from more than 300 cows. - One company has even developed a soft drink based on cow urine which they believes could eclipse Coke and Pepsi. "God resides in cow dung," says Kesari Gumat, as he walks through his laboratory where researchers mix bovine excreta with medicinal herbs and monitor beakers of simmering cow urine. The lab in the western Indian city of Ahmedabad is one of a growing number of research centers which have embraced the sacred status of cows in India and sought to push it to a new level.

Promoting the practical alongside the spiritual, they have developed a line of dung- and urine-based medicines which they say can cure a whole herd of ailments from bad breath to cancer. "These formulas are not new," Gumat said. The raw materials are generated on site from more than 300 cows which roam the compound housing the center.

"Trust me. Blueprint: Engineers Invent A Healthier Toilet. "One-and-a-half million children die each year from diseases related to poor sanitation. We're building a disinfecting toilet that doesn't need running water or massive treatment plants and is cheap and odor-free. It's a squat toilet, which is what many people around the world prefer. The waste falls onto a sloped conveyor belt. Solids stick, and liquids run off into a bed of sand, which filters everything 10 micrometers or larger, including most parasites and their eggs. The sand filter's top layer will get clogged, so a corkscrew mechanism skims it off to join the solids, which another belt squeezes to remove moisture so they can be burned efficiently.

To test our components, we've decided to use a nonhazardous feces surrogate—same calorific content, same moisture content, looks like it, feels like it, but made out of ingredients like miso paste and peanut butter. Cholera's seven pandemics - Health. People are treated at the St. Nicholas hospital in Saint Marc, Haiti, on Oct. 21, 2010, during a cholera outbreak. (Dieu Nalio Chery/Associated Press) In the past 200 hundred years, seven cholera pandemics have killed millions across the globe.

The seventh is still going on, but advancements in medical science have greatly reduced the number of people who die from it. In addition, modern-day sewage and water treatment systems have largely eliminated cholera from developed countries. But it continues to be a concern in the developing world, especially in areas ravaged by war and natural disasters such as earthquakes and hurricanes that leave people without access to clean drinking water. These are the major cholera outbreaks: 1961 to present Unlike the first six, the seventh pandemic originated in Indonesia.

Red Cross volunteers receive cholera vaccinations before heading up to Banda Aceh, Indonesia, to take part in tsunami relief efforts in January 2005. Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries. In India, the lowest class still shovels other people's feces | Sulabh International Social Service Organisation. The Indian Supreme Court expressed concern at the delay in passing a bill to ban manual scavenging.

The Indian Supreme Court expressed concern on Tuesday at the delay in passing a bill that would ban manual scavenging. The bench told Attorney General G.E. Vahanvati, "They [manual scavengers] are marginalized and Parliament needs to take adequate steps to pass the bill. It had been over a year and half that the Additional Solicitor-General has been promising to do something. We need a proper reply," according to Indian newspaper The Hindu . "Manual scavenging—or cleaning human waste from toilets—is only the most demeaning of the jobs that India's erstwhile untouchables, or Dalits, are forced to perform to earn a living," GlobalPost senior correspondent Jason Overdorf said, from New Delhi . "Making manual scavenging illegal, and instituting measures to help those trapped in those jobs to find other work, is of course a necessary and much too tardy measure. World Toilet Day Raises Sanitation Awareness.

In case you didn't know (and honestly, why would you?) , Nov. 19 is World Toilet Day — an event hosted by the World Toilet Organization to raise awareness for the 2.5 billion people around the world who live without proper sanitation. But even for those of us with access to modern plumbing, how often do we really think about our toilets? From outhouses to water closets — even former Merrill Lynch CEO John Thain's $35,000 "commode on legs" (technically a table, not a toilet) — humans have been devising creative ways to go to the bathroom since, well, the first person crossed his legs with an urgent need to go.

It's unclear who first invented the toilet. Ancient Rome is famous for its public bathhouses — the Baths of Caracalla are six times larger than St. Medieval England wins the gross-out award for its invention of the castle garderobe — a protruding room with a tiny opening out of which royalty would do their business. Bathroom technology really took off in the 20th century. India Bihar rapes 'caused by lack of toilets' 9 May 2013Last updated at 05:00 ET By Amarnath Tewary Patna, Bihar More than half-a-billion Indians lack access to basic sanitation Most of the cases of rape of women and girls in India's Bihar state occur when they go out to defecate in the open, police and social activists say. Some 85% of the rural households in the state, one of India's poorest, have no access to a toilet, a study says. The police reported more than 870 cases of rape in Bihar last year.

More than half-a-billion Indians lack access to basic sanitation. Many do not have access to flush toilets or other latrines. The issue of sexual violence against women and girls in India has been under intense scrutiny since the gang rape and murder of a student on a Delhi bus in December led to widespread protests. In March, India passed a new bill containing harsher punishments, including the death penalty, for rapists. 'Worrisome trend' Senior police official Arvind Pandey told the BBC that such cases happen every month in Bihar.