Treaty of Versailles, 1919 IMPACT OF WORLD WAR I World War I was one of the most destructive wars in modern history. Nearly ten million soldiers died as a result of hostilities. The enormous losses on all sides of the conflict resulted in part from the introduction of new weapons, like the machine gun and gas warfare, as well as the failure of military leaders to adjust their tactics to the increasingly mechanized nature of warfare. A policy of attrition, particularly on the Western Front, cost the lives of hundreds of thousands of soldiers. No official agencies kept careful accounting of civilian losses during the war years, but scholars suggest that as many as thirteen million non-combatants died as a direct or indirect result of the war. TREATIES OF SAINT-GERMAIN-EN-LAYE, TRIANON, AND SEVRES After such a devastating war, the victorious Western Powers imposed a series of harsh treaties upon the defeated nations. Moreover, Germany was forbidden to maintain an air force. Further Reading Henig, Ruth B.
The Path to Nazi Genocide — Media NARRATOR: Paris, 1900. More than fifty million people from around the world visited the Universal Exposition—a world’s fair intended to promote greater understanding and tolerance among nations, and to celebrate the new century, new inventions, exciting progress. The 20th century began much like our own—with hope that education, science and technology could create a better, more peaceful world. What followed soon after were two devastating wars. TEXT ON SCREEN: The Path to Nazi Genocide NARRATOR: The first “world war,” from 1914 to 1918, was fought throughout Europe and beyond. TEXT ON SCREEN: Aftermath of World War I and the Rise of Nazism, 1918-1933 NARRATOR: The humiliation of Germany’s defeat and the peace settlement that followed in 1919 would play an important role in the rise of Nazism and the coming of a second “world war” just 20 years later. Many veterans and other citizens struggled to understand Germany’s defeat and the uncertain future.
Archaeologists in Poland Make Horrendous Discovery Underneath the Ground That the Nazis Never Wanted Found Archaeologists in eastern Poland claim they have discovered new evidence related to the Nazi regime’s evil and murderous history. Hidden underneath the ground at a former Nazi concentration camp on the outskirts of the village of Sobibor, archaeologists reputedly found gas chambers that were intentionally hidden by Nazis after an uprising in 1943. Officials estimate roughly 250,000 Jews were killed in the gas chambers. Following an uprising at the camp on Oct. 14, 1943, German forces reportedly demolished the gas chambers. The site of the mass killing of Jews was later covered with an asphalt road. Credit: Yad Vashem International Institute for Holocaust Research Yoram Haimi, one of the archaeologists on the project, told Reuters that they “were amazed at the size of the building and the well-preserved condition of the chamber walls.” Haimi also has a personal connection to the grisly discovery. Very few prisoners ever made it out of Sobibor alive.
World Memory Project The World Memory Project is changing lives already by building the world's largest online resource for information about individual victims of the Holocaust and Nazi persecution. Discover how you can help bring the truth to light and create a chance for family connections that transcend war and time. Watch More Videos » Records made available through the World Memory Project are searchable online for free. Search now » May 09, 2014 World Memory Project Turns Three New goal set for project on its third anniversary. March 05, 2014 The Experience of German Jews during the Holocaust Information from some 25,000 historical records now searchable online. December 13, 2013 Project Helps Students Connect with History New Jersey high school involvement with World Memory Project highlighted.
Why We Need to Continue Studying the Holocaust Just because an episode in history took place long ago does not mean that we stop asking questions about it, about whose stories are told as we remember, and about what our assumptions about history mean for our lives today. We must continue to ask questions about the past, even when doing so—especially when doing so—challenges our understanding of how something unfolded. In my own work as a historian and author of several books on Russian history, I like to ask questions that complicate the narratives commonly told. Here, on the Eastern Front, Nazis murdered nearly a million Jews in the months following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. What follows is a look at one story from that time. By the summer of 1944, Red Army troops had driven the Germans out of Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, and the Baltic region. On July 23, 1944, Red Army soldiers entered the city of Lublin in eastern Poland. The Nazis murdered Jews across the European continent.
VIDEO: What makes genocide possible - syamamura - Island Pacific Academy Mail What makes someone a bystander? – Lesson Plan | Lesson Plan | PBS NewsHour Extra Introduction After a video surfaced of fraternity members at Oklahoma University singing a racist chant, many people expressed shock and outrage. The video, along with the discussion surrounding it on group behavior, provides an opportunity to explore the psychology of why some people remain bystanders instead of choosing to intervene. This lesson will help students understand these behavioral processes and their role in our lives and society. Subjects Psychology, Social Studies Estimated Time 1-2 class periods, plus homework for extension assignments if desired Grade level Materials Computer accessHandout #1: “We Are All Bystanders”Handout #2: “The ‘In’ Group”Handout #3: “Two students expelled from OU for leading racist chant” (optional)Video: NewsHour report on OU (link below) Objectives To develop an understanding of bystanders, students will: Main Activity Students read an excerpt from the article “We Are All Bystanders” (Handout #1) on the psychology of group behavior. Extension Activity
The Tragedy of S.S. St. Louis (May 13 - June 20, 1939) : Table of Contents | Auschwitz Bombing Controversy | FDR Administration After Kristallnacht in November 1938, many Jews within Germany decided that it was time to leave. The opportunity that the S.S. Boarding The S.S. Many other passengers had either left family members behind while some were also going to be meeting relatives that had traveled earlier. There is a somewhat nervous disposition among the passengers. At 8:00 p.m. on the evening of Saturday May 13, the ship sailed. The Trip to Cuba Only a half an hour after the S.S. Decree 937 In Cuba in early 1939, Decree 55 had passed which drew a distinction between refugees and tourists. Arrival at Cuba At three o'clock in the morning, the pilot boarded. Negotiations and Influences Manuel Benitez Though a major player in the fate of the refugees since it was he who had signed their landing permits, he continually underestimated President Bru's stance. Luis Clasing & Robert Hoffman (Hapag officials in Havana)