In the trenches of 1914-1918 What were the trenches? Although most of us think primarily of the Great War in terms of life and death in the trenches, only a relatively small proportion of the army actually served there. The trenches were the front lines, the most dangerous places. But behind them was a mass of supply lines, training establishments, stores, workshops, headquarters and all the other elements of the 1914-1918 system of war, in which the majority of troops were employed. The trenches were the domain of the infantry, with the supporting arms of the mortars and machine-guns, the engineers and the forward positions of the artillery observers. Why were the trenches there? The idea of digging into the ground to give some protection from powerful enemy artillery and small arms fire was not a new idea or unique to the Great War. What were the trenches like? The type and nature of the trench positions varied a lot, depending on the local conditions. The enemy had a very similar system of trenches.
Primary History - World War 2 Treaty of Versailles, 1919 IMPACT OF WORLD WAR I World War I was one of the most destructive wars in modern history. Nearly ten million soldiers died as a result of hostilities. The enormous losses on all sides of the conflict resulted in part from the introduction of new weapons, like the machine gun and gas warfare, as well as the failure of military leaders to adjust their tactics to the increasingly mechanized nature of warfare. A policy of attrition, particularly on the Western Front, cost the lives of hundreds of thousands of soldiers. No official agencies kept careful accounting of civilian losses during the war years, but scholars suggest that as many as thirteen million non-combatants died as a direct or indirect result of the war. TREATIES OF SAINT-GERMAIN-EN-LAYE, TRIANON, AND SEVRES After such a devastating war, the victorious Western Powers imposed a series of harsh treaties upon the defeated nations. Moreover, Germany was forbidden to maintain an air force. Further Reading Henig, Ruth B.
World History Lesson Plans, Games, Powerpoints, Classroom Activities K-12 Gallipoli and the Anzacs | The Anzac landing at Gallipoli The Anzac landing: overview Why did theAnzacs land? 25 April 1915: Anzac Cove, Gallipoli Historians still debate whether the Anzac troops were landed at the correct place. Why did the Allied commanders send Australian troops to land on a beach before rugged hills, ridges and steep gullies? ‘The attack on Gallipoli was one of the more imaginative strategies of the First World War ... A brief description of the Anzac Landing... It was only shortly after the landing that high command let it be known that an error had been made – the landing should have been made on Brighton Beach, south of Anzac Cove and in a locality of relatively friendly topography. The boat I was in landed on the point. Read a brief description of the landing – an excerpt from Denis Winter's book, 25 April 1915 – The Inevitable Tragedy. more ... Special feature: war correspondents at the landing Reports by war correspondents Landing section highlights ‘First to Fall’ A 'duty clear before us' Signaller Silas at Anzac
World War I World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, or the Great War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. Over 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war (including the victims of a number of genocides), a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by trench warfare, a grueling form of warfare in which the defender held the advantage. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. Prelude
The Path to Nazi Genocide — Media NARRATOR: Paris, 1900. More than fifty million people from around the world visited the Universal Exposition—a world’s fair intended to promote greater understanding and tolerance among nations, and to celebrate the new century, new inventions, exciting progress. The 20th century began much like our own—with hope that education, science and technology could create a better, more peaceful world. What followed soon after were two devastating wars. TEXT ON SCREEN: The Path to Nazi Genocide NARRATOR: The first “world war,” from 1914 to 1918, was fought throughout Europe and beyond. TEXT ON SCREEN: Aftermath of World War I and the Rise of Nazism, 1918-1933 NARRATOR: The humiliation of Germany’s defeat and the peace settlement that followed in 1919 would play an important role in the rise of Nazism and the coming of a second “world war” just 20 years later. Many veterans and other citizens struggled to understand Germany’s defeat and the uncertain future.
First World War Origins The First World War was caused by the destabilisation of the balance of power in Europe due to the rise of Germany. The war began in 1914 when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia because of the assassination of an archduke. Countries had made alliances with each other, and soon most of Europe was at war. New Zealand was part of the British Empire, and when Britain declared war on Germany, in August 1914, that meant New Zealand was at war too. The two sides were called the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary) and the Allies, which included the British Empire, Russia and France. New Zealand enters the war New Zealand decided to send soldiers to fight in the war for a number of reasons, including New Zealand’s strong ties to Britain and its concern with keeping trade routes open so it could continue to export to Britain. Within a month New Zealand troops had occupied Western Samoa, which was a German territory. Gallipoli Turkey had entered the war on the Central Powers side.