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Jeff Hawkins on how brain science will change computing

Jeff Hawkins on how brain science will change computing

10 Important Differences Between Brains and Computers : Developing Intelligence “A good metaphor is something even the police should keep an eye on.” – G.C. Lichtenberg Although the brain-computer metaphor has served cognitive psychology well, research in cognitive neuroscience has revealed many important differences between brains and computers. Appreciating these differences may be crucial to understanding the mechanisms of neural information processing, and ultimately for the creation of artificial intelligence. Below, I review the most important of these differences (and the consequences to cognitive psychology of failing to recognize them): similar ground is covered in this excellent (though lengthy) lecture. Difference # 1: Brains are analogue; computers are digital It’s easy to think that neurons are essentially binary, given that they fire an action potential if they reach a certain threshold, and otherwise do not fire. Difference # 2: The brain uses content-addressable memory Difference # 4: Processing speed is not fixed in the brain; there is no system clock

How Do You Get Sexual Orientation and Gender in Humans? : Greg Laden's Blog Humans appear to have a reasonable amount of diversity in their sexual orientations, in what is often referred to as “gender” and in adult behavior generally. When convenient, people will point to “genes” as the “cause” of any particular subset of th is diversity (or all of it). When convenient, people will point to “culture” as the “cause” of … whatever. Prior to birth there are a number of factors than can influence things like gender or sexuality in a human. Then there is the stuff that happens after birth. And so it goes throughout development; At numerous stages along the way, a human is affected by hormones, bathed in gendered behavior, and eventually, starts to observe her or his own environment and act accordingly. There are many factors that would determine a person’s gender over a lifetime. In rats, males get to be males in large part because they have testes that secrete testosterone, which in turn causes other changes. And I could go on. Self-Help Books)

Human Brain's Processing Speed Established In a new scientific study, which analyzed human reaction times to various events, it was established that the connections inside the human brain only transported about 60 bits of information per second. The investigation relied on century-old knowledge, which held that the brain's processing speed was intimately related to the amount of time it took for it to complete a task. This duration also reflects the time it takes for the cognitive processes involved in solving a problem to act, Technology Review reports. Reaction times have been a window into the human brain for many years, experts say.One test for reaction times is called a visual lexical decision task. A participant watches a screen, where numerous letters appear. The observer needs to press a button if the string they see is a word or a non-word. The term entropy is used here to describe the amount of information that is needed so that the state of the entire system can be established.

The-Emotions-Map.lg Blog I’ve been working to draw a graph that compares employment trends since the end of the Great Recession with other important trends in the economy, and also with earlier periods. Here’s what I’ve come up with (click on the graph for a bigger pdf version, and click here for a spreadsheet with the graph and all its data): Using data from the invaluable online resource FRED (and with the help of an equally critical real-world resource, my RA Noam Bernstein), I’ve plotted the trends since 1995 in US GPD, total corporate investment in equipment, and total corporate profits from non-financial companies (and also for all companies, including financial ones). I set the January 1995 value for each of these equal to 100 to allow comparisons across them over the years. I also plotted the US employment-population ratio, or percentage of working-age people who have jobs (the axis for this line is on the right-hand side of the graph). Do you agree?

emotions map Don't Look Now — the Robots Are Gaining Five Innovations that Could Change the Way We Live, Work and Play To some extent, coverage of robotics is outside the parameters of the mobility beat. But robotics is becoming more real, and traditional mobile devices - cameras, sound equipment and portable computers - are part of the equation. The other reason for covering this area is that it is very cool. The top video shows a Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) robot that can climb stairs. This is only the latest feat for PETMAN, which has already mastered walking. Last week, Public Radio International (PRI) reported on something of a twist: Robots that are designed to keep humans safe. Researchers next goal is to develop a robot that can conduct body searches - but they acknowledge the technology isn't yet there, nor are prison systems. The robotic work going on now simply is stunning.

Where is The Mind?: Science gets puzzled and almost admits a non-local mentalscape. This will be the last "home-produced" blog entry for a while [save the short "Everyday Spirituality" which will follow it as a sign-off] . West Virginia beckons tomorrow morning and off I will go to whatever that entails. As I said in one of the commentary responses the other day, I hope that reading two journal runs "cover-to-cover" will bring up a few thoughts worth sharing. This day's entry was inspired by two articles bumped into coincidentally which had scientists puzzling about a holographic universe and a non-local mind. Those scientists would cringe to see how I've taken their sign-posts-on-the-path, but that is their hang-up, not mine The first of these articles [both from the New Scientist] was "Where in the World is the Mind?" That brings in the second serendipitous article. It reminded me then, also, of a moment when I was able to spend a [too short] time with David Bohm, the famous theoretical physicist.

The Rise of the Artifical-Intelligence Economy - Megan McArdle - Business Adam Ozimek -- blogger at Modeled Behavior and associate at Econsult Corporation As a child I used to read my grandfather's Popular Science and Popular Mechanics magazines. The constant promise and inevitable disappointment of amazing technologies that mostly never materialized (a problem likely exacerbated by my focus on the amazing and outlandish ones) made me skeptical of futurist predictions. It is somewhat strange then, that I now commonly find myself a proponent of futurist visions equally as grand as those that once made me a cynic. But I'm not alone in seeing the near future as a quickly changing technological landscape. In their recent book Race Against The Machine: How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy, MIT's Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee* offer a similarly sweeping view of how technology is, and will be, shaping our future Brynjolfsson and McAfee also cite IBM's Jeopardy!

Try It: Hemispheric Specialization The left and right hemispheres of the brain have specialized functions for most people. The left hemisphere is a language center while the right hemisphere processes spatial information. These differences are most obvious in those rare individuals whose corpus callosum was surgically severed to help control a severe form of epilepsy. You will need a cooperative volunteer for this demonstration. Is Chicago north of Washington, D.C.? (for the curious, the answers are: 1.

The Surprising Path Of Artificial Intelligence Editor’s note: This is Part I of a three-part guest post written by legendary Silicon Valley investor Vinod Khosla, the founder of Khosla Ventures. In Part II, he will describe how software and mobile technologies can augment and even replace doctors. In Part III, he will talk about how technology will sweep through education. Forty years ago this December, President Nixon declared a war on cancer, pledging a “total national commitment” to conquering the disease. Fifty years ago this spring, President Kennedy declared a space race, promising to land a man safely on the moon before the end of the decade. And 54 years ago, Artificial Intelligence pioneer Herbert Simon declared “there are now in the world machines that think” and predicted that a computer would be world chess champion within 10 years. Though we made it to the moon the efforts in cancer and artificial intelligence have failed in their larger ambitions but have made progress. Quoting another writer:

Software agent In computer science, a software agent is a computer program that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency, which derives from the Latin agere (to do): an agreement to act on one's behalf. Such "action on behalf of" implies the authority to decide which, if any, action is appropriate.[1][2] Related and derived concepts include intelligent agents (in particular exhibiting some aspect of artificial intelligence, such as learning and reasoning), autonomous agents (capable of modifying the way in which they achieve their objectives), distributed agents (being executed on physically distinct computers), multi-agent systems (distributed agents that do not have the capabilities to achieve an objective alone and thus must communicate), and mobile agents (agents that can relocate their execution onto different processors). Concepts[edit] The basic attributes of a software agent are that agents Nwana's Category of Software Agent Distinguishing agents from programs[edit]

Intelligent Software Agents: Definitions and Applications David Wallace Croft Senior Intelligent Systems Engineer Special Projects Division, Information TechnologyAnalytic Services, Inc. (ANSER) Definition: Agent Agent: One that is authorized to act for another. Agents possess the characteristics of delegacy, competency, and amenability. Delegacy: Discretionary authority to autonomously act on behalf of the client. Competency: The capability to effectively manipulate the problem domain environment to accomplish the prerequisite tasks. Amenability: The ability to adapt behavior to optimize performance in an often non-stationary environment in responsive pursuit of the goals of the client. Examples of human agents include booking agents, sales agents, and politicians. Definition: Software Agent Software Agent: An artificial agent which operates in a software environment. Software environments include operating systems, computer applications, databases, networks, and virtual domains. Definition: Intelligent Software Agent Clients