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Tragedy of the commons The tragedy of the commons concept is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation, and sociology. However the concept, as originally developed, has also received criticism for not taking into account the many other factors operating to enforce or agree on regulation in this scenario. Lloyd's pamphlet[edit] In 1833, the English economist William Forster Lloyd published a pamphlet which included an example of herders sharing a common parcel of land on which they are each entitled to let their cows graze. In English villages, shepherds had sometimes grazed their sheep in common areas, and sheep ate grass more severely than cows.

Victory at Hand for the Climate Movement? There are signs the climate movement could be on the verge of a remarkable and surprising victory. If we read the current context correctly, and if the movement can adjust its strategy to capture the opportunity presented, it could usher in the fastest and most dramatic economic transformation in history. This would include the removal of the oil, coal and gas industries from the economy in just a few decades and their replacement with new industries and, for the most part, entirely new companies. It would be the greatest transfer of wealth and power between industries and countries the world has ever seen. To understand this incredible potential we first have to step back and understand the unique structure of this social change movement, which may rank among the most influential in history.

Southern Ocean Sanctuaries Campaign Pew is a member of the Antarctic Ocean Alliance, a coalition of conservation organizations focused on protecting the Southern Ocean region. Antarctica, often perceived as a stark, frozen world, is bursting with colorful marine life. Below the ocean surface, brilliantly hued starfish, bioluminescent worms, pastel octopuses, and other creatures from miniscule to massive light up the waters. Strange fish, protected by a natural antifreeze in their bodies, share the krill-rich waters with penguins, seabirds, seals, and whales. The Ross Sea alone has more than 1 million pairs of Adélie penguins, 28,850 pairs of emperor penguins, 30,000 to 50,000 Weddell seals, 5.5 million Antarctic petrels, and 21,000 minke whales. Speed Read & increase your reading comprehension Simply start by clicking on the Play button on the left. Reading is that one activity that we do every day but we don't really practice. Most people learn the basics of reading in kindergarten and never graduate to the next levels. You are probably using the same basic rudimental tools and techniques that you learned when you were 6.

12 Documentaries That Changed the World Entertainment Weekly looks at 12 Documentaries That Changed the World. A dozen nonfiction films with real world impact -- helping free a man (''The Thin Blue Line''), energizing debate on climate change (''An Inconvenient Truth''), altering diets (''Super Size Me''), and more Films include:

Common-pool resource The use of many common-pool resources, if managed carefully, can be extended because the resource system forms a positive feedback loop, where the stock variable continually regenerates the fringe variable as long as the stock variable is not compromised, providing an optimum amount of consumption. However, consumption exceeding the fringe value reduces the stock variable, which in turn decreases the flow variable. If the stock variable is allowed to regenerate then the fringe and flow variables may also recover to initial levels, but in many cases the loss is irreparable.[citation needed] Al Gore: 400 PPM Yesterday, for the first time in human history, concentrations of carbon dioxide, the primary global warming pollutant, hit 400 parts per million in our planet's atmosphere. This number is a reminder that for the last 150 years -- and especially over the last several decades -- we have been recklessly polluting the protective sheath of atmosphere that surrounds the Earth and protects the conditions that have fostered the flourishing of our civilization. We are altering the composition of our atmosphere at an unprecedented rate. Indeed, every single day we pour an additional 90 million tons of global warming pollution into the sky as if it were an open sewer. As the distinguished climate scientist Jim Hansen has calculated, the accumulated manmade global warming pollution in the atmosphere now traps enough extra heat energy each day to equal the energy that would be released by 400,000 Hiroshima-scale atomic bombs exploding every single day.

Too late to save Maui's dolphin - experts - National News Published: 5:51PM Sunday December 15, 2013 Source: ONE News Marine experts say it is too late to stop the Maui's dolphin becoming extinct and New Zealand sea lions will be next unless changes are made. Despite mandatory monitoring and recent restrictions on fishing zones, the Maui's dolphins' days are numbered. Top 10 Shocking Documentaries Movies and TV As a visual medium, documentaries frequently succeed in portraying the unimaginable far better then any book alone could do. Beaming everything from the consequences of child abuse to the horrors of nuclear warfare into the homes of millions, the following infamous documentaries shock the viewer and challenge perceptions.

Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media (1992) is a documentary film that explores the political life and ideas of Noam Chomsky, a linguist, intellectual, and political activist. Created by two Canadian filmmakers, Mark Achbar and Peter Wintonick, it expands on the ideas of Chomsky's earlier book, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, which he co-wrote with Edward S. Herman. The film presents and illustrates Chomsky's and Herman's thesis that corporate media, as profit-driven institutions, tend to serve and further the agendas of the interests of dominant, elite groups in the society. A centerpiece of the film is a long examination of the history of The New York Times' coverage of the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, which Chomsky says exemplifies the media's unwillingness to criticize an ally of the elite.

Abundance of the chemical elements Estimated proportions of matter, dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements. For example, the mass-fraction abundance of oxygen in water is about 89%, because that is the fraction of water's mass which is oxygen. However, the mole-fraction abundance of oxygen in water is only 33% because only 1 atom of 3 in water is an oxygen atom. In the universe as a whole, and in the atmospheres of gas-giant planets such as Jupiter, the mass-fraction abundances of hydrogen and helium are about 74% and 23–25% respectively, while the (atomic) mole-fractions of these elements are closer to 92% and 8%. However, since hydrogen is diatomic while helium is not, in the conditions of Jupiter's outer atmosphere, the molecular mole-fraction (fraction of total gas molecules, or fraction of atmosphere by volume) of hydrogen in the outer atmosphere of Jupiter is about 86%, and for helium, 13%.

Individual and political action on climate change Individual and political action on climate change can take many forms, most of which have the ultimate goal of limiting and/or reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, toward avoiding dangerous climate change. Political action[edit] Political action can change laws and regulations that relate to climate change, such as tax incentives, greenhouse gas emissions limits or establishing a regulatory framework within which carbon trading markets can operate. Political action can also gain media and public attention to climate change. Political action from the community, however, is often challenged by interests within the fossil-fuel industry.[1][2] Some climate change sceptic groups are independent of the fossil-fuel industry, such as the Australian Youth Climate Change Council (AYCCC).[3] There are many forms of political action on climate change including letter writing, direct lobbying, and public shaming of politicians and media organizations.

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