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The last few decades have seen the emergence of a growing body of literature devoted to a critique of the so-called “old” or “Cartesian-Newtonian” paradigm which, in the wake of the prodigious successes of modern natural science, came to dominate the full range of authoritative intellectual discourse and its associated worldviews. Often coupled with a materialistic, and indeed atomistic, metaphysics, this paradigm has been guided by the methodological principle of reductionism. The critics of reductionism have tended to promote various forms of holism, a term which, perhaps more than any other, has served as the rallying cry for those who see themselves as creators of a “new paradigm.” At the forefront of such a challenge, and in many ways the herald of the new paradigm, is the relatively new movement of transpersonal psychology. In taking seriously such experiences, transpersonal theory has been compelled to transcend the disciplinary boundaries of mainstream psychology. C. Related:  Complex SystemsWisdom

Complexity: It’s Not That Simple Complexity theory has been around for a generation now, but most people don’t understand it. I often read or listen to consultants, ‘experts’ and media people who proffer ludicrously simplistic ‘solutions’ to complex predicaments. Since it seems most people would prefer things to be simple, these ‘experts’ always seem to have an uncritical audience. Complexity theory argues that simple, complicated, complex and chaotic systems have fundamentally different properties, and therefore different approaches and processes are needed when dealing with issues and challenges in each of these types of systems. As the diagram above illustrates, natural systems (both social and ecological) are inherently complex. Human invention, for the most part, uses biomimicry, i.e. we attempt to manufacture, to replicate mechanically, things that appear to work in nature. Natural systems are highly effective but inefficient due to their massive redundancy (picture a tree dropping thousands of seeds).

The Octarine argument. Yes, yes - colour corresponds with real properties. But colour itself is not in the external physical world. It's like those cases where a picture from a telescope or a microscope is given colours artificially to help show up the different substances. The colours are not real, but they do help you understand more about what you're seeing. It turns out that all colour is more or less like that -yes, it's helpful, but that doesn't mean it directly reflects the physical reality. After all, we only actually sense three different wavelengths. If you think about it, though, this means that the way we see things is actually wrong. All the same, it is possible to do a bit better, and some animals detect more than three different wavelengths.

8 Things Everybody Ought to Know About Concentrating “Music helps me concentrate,” Mike said to me glancing briefly over his shoulder. Mike was in his room writing a paper for his U.S. History class. Mike made a shift about every thirty seconds between all of the above. Do you know a person like this? The Science Behind Concentration In the above account, Mike’s obviously stuck in a routine that many of us may have found ourselves in, yet in the moment we feel it’s almost an impossible routine to get out of. When we constantly multitask to get things done, we’re not multitasking, we’re rapidly shifting our attention. Phase 1: Blood Rush Alert When Mike decides to start writing his History essay, blood rushes to his anterior prefrontal cortex. Phase 2: Find and Execute The alert carries an electrical charge that’s composed of two parts: first, a search query (which is needed to find the correct neurons for executing the task of writing), and second, a command (which tells the appropriate neuron what to do). Phase 3: Disengagement 1. 2. 3. 4.

Psychology Wiki Philosophy of perception Do we see what is really there? The two areas of the image marked A and B, and the rectangle connecting them, are all of the same shade: our eyes automatically "correct" for the shadow of the cylinder. The philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledge of, the world.[1] Any explicit account of perception requires a commitment to one of a variety of ontological or metaphysical views. Categories of perception[edit] We may categorize perception as internal or external. Internal perception (proprioception) tells us what is going on in our bodies; where our limbs are, whether we are sitting or standing, whether we are depressed, hungry, tired and so forth.External or Sensory perception (exteroception), tells us about the world outside our bodies. The philosophy of perception is mainly concerned with exteroception. Scientific accounts of perception[edit] See also[edit]

Why we hate Complexity Natural and social systems are complex — that is, not entirely knowable, unpredictable, resistant to cause-and-effect analysis, in a word, mysterious. For our first three million years on Earth we humans, like every other species on the planet, accepted that mystery. We adapted rather than trying to change our environment. We evolved by learning to accommodate ourselves to our environment. But with the invention of civilization, we stopped accommodating change and started imposing it on our environment so we wouldn’t have to change. The problem is, our brains are severely limited in what they are capable of understanding. Once we invented civilization, and started to need to change our environment a lot, we needed to invent science. Even scientists loathe the imperfections in their models. One of the principles that stresses scientists, mathematicians, philosophers and theologists the most is the concept of infinity. This loathing for complexity is evident everywhere: Why?

9 Mind-Bending Epiphanies That Turned My World Upside-Down Over the years I’ve learned dozens of little tricks and insights for making life more fulfilling. They’ve added up to a significant improvement in the ease and quality of my day-to-day life. But the major breakthroughs have come from a handful of insights that completely rocked my world and redefined reality forever. The world now seems to be a completely different one than the one I lived in about ten years ago, when I started looking into the mechanics of quality of life. It wasn’t the world (and its people) that changed really, it was how I thought of it. Maybe you’ve had some of the same insights. 1. The first time I heard somebody say that — in the opening chapter of The Power of Now — I didn’t like the sound of it one bit. I see quite clearly now that life is nothing but passing experiences, and my thoughts are just one more category of things I experience. If you can observe your thoughts just like you can observe other objects, who’s doing the observing? 2. Of course! 3. 4. 5.

Motivation Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La motivation est, dans un organisme vivant, la composante ou le processus qui règle son engagement pour une activité précise. Elle en détermine le déclenchement dans une certaine direction avec l'intensité souhaitée et en assure la prolongation jusqu'à l'aboutissement ou l'interruption. Cette notion se distingue du dynamisme, de l'énergie ou du fait d'être actif. La motivation prend de nos jours une place de premier plan dans une organisation. Elle est déterminante pour la productivité chez les employés. Se manifestant habituellement par le déploiement d'une énergie (sous divers aspects telle que l'enthousiasme, l'assiduité, la persévérance), la motivation est trivialement assimilée à une « réserve d'énergie ». Mais plus qu'une forme « d'énergie potentielle », la motivation est une instance d'intégration et de régulation d'une multitude de paramètres relatifs aux opportunités d'un environnement et aux sollicitations d'une situation.

Big Five (psychologie) Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Big Five. En psychologie, les Big Five sont cinq traits centraux de la personnalité empiriquement mis en évidence par Goldberg (1990). Il est parfois question du « modèle OCEAN » suivant les différentes dimensions du modèle[1]. (O) ouverture à l'expérience - appréciation de l'art, de l'émotion, de l'aventure, des idées peu communes, curiosité et imagination ;(C) conscienciosité - autodiscipline, respect des obligations, organisation plutôt que spontanéité ; orienté vers des buts ;(E) extraversion - énergie, émotions positives, tendance à chercher la stimulation et la compagnie des autres, fonceur ;(A) agréabilité - une tendance à être compatissant et coopératif plutôt que soupçonneux et antagonique envers les autres ;(N) névrosisme ou neuroticisme - contraire de stabilité émotionnelle : tendance à éprouver facilement des émotions désagréables comme la colère, l'inquiétude ou la dépression, vulnérabilité.

The Experience and Perception of Time What is ‘the perception of time’? The very expression ‘the perception of time’ invites objection. Insofar as time is something different from events, we do not perceive time as such, but changes or events in time. Kinds of temporal experience There are a number of what Ernst Pöppel (1978) calls ‘elementary time experiences’, or fundamental aspects of our experience of time. Duration One of the earliest, and most famous, discussions of the nature and experience of time occurs in the autobiographical Confessions of St Augustine. Augustine's answer to this riddle is that what we are measuring, when we measure the duration of an event or interval of time, is in the memory. Whatever the process in question is, it seems likely that it is intimately connected with what William Friedman (1990) calls ‘time memory’: that is, memory of when some particular event occurred. The specious present The term ‘specious present’ was first introduced by the psychologist E.R. Here is one attempt to do so. Φ-β-κ