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Human-based computation

Human-based computation (HBC) is a computer science technique in which a machine performs its function by outsourcing certain steps to humans. This approach uses differences in abilities and alternative costs between humans and computer agents to achieve symbiotic human-computer interaction. In traditional computation, a human employs a computer[1] to solve a problem; a human provides a formalized problem description and an algorithm to a computer, and receives a solution to interpret. Human-based computation frequently reverses the roles; the computer asks a person or a large group of people to solve a problem, then collects, interprets, and integrates their solutions. Early work[edit] Human-based computation (apart from the historical meaning of "computer") research has its origins in the early work on interactive evolutionary computation. A concept of the automatic Turing test pioneered by Moni Naor (1996) is another precursor of human-based computation. Alternative terms[edit] Related:  Complex Systems

Systems Thinking Resources - The Donella Meadows Institute Concepts and Frameworks The Five Learning Disciplines Developed by renowned systems thinker Peter Senge, these five disciplines each enhance the ability of a person or organization to use learning effectively. The five learning disciplines are Personal MasteryMental ModelsShared VisionTeam LearningSystems Thinking For descriptions of each of these disciplines, visit the Society for Organizational Learning’s website. U Process U Process, also know as Theory U, is a useful methodology for collectively approaching difficult problems and developing innovative, appropriate solutions. For more information about U Process, visit the Presencing Institute. Biomimicry Biomimicry is the concept of using natural forms, materials, and processes as models to drive human innovation. The Biomimicry Guild has a great introduction to this approach to problem solving. Double Loop Learning Tools The Iceberg Model We have a copy of the iceberg model hanging in our office. The Bathtub Theorem Open Space World Café

Evonet Wiki : Welcome to Evo* 2007 Thinking in Systems by Donella Meadows "Dana Meadows' exposition in this book exhibits a degree of clarity and simplicity that can only be attained by one who profoundly and honestly understands the subject at hand--in this case systems modeling. Many thanks to Diana Wright for bringing this extra legacy from Dana to us."—Herman Daly, Professor, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland at College Park In the years following her role as the lead author of the international bestseller, Limits to Growth—the first book to show the consequences of unchecked growth on a finite planet— Donella Meadows remained a pioneer of environmental and social analysis until her untimely death in 2001. Meadows’ newly released manuscript, Thinking in Systems, is a concise and crucial book offering insight for problem solving on scales ranging from the personal to the global. Some of the biggest problems facing the world—war, hunger, poverty, and environmental degradation—are essentially system failures. About the Author Donella Meadows

Gotcha! Criminal mugs captured in computer In Search of..... - TV.com www.tv.com/shows/in-search-of Narrarated by Leonard Nimoy, In search of was a 30 minute syndicated show that covered a wide range of paranormal topics. It pioneered a lot of the methodology that ... Search Engine - Download.com download.cnet.com/s/search-engine search engine free download - GSA Search Engine Ranker, Nomao - The personalized search engine, Zoom Search Engine, and many more programs Google Search - Download.com download.cnet.com/s/google-search google search free download - Google Search, Google Toolbar for Internet Explorer, Google Search, and many more programs Star Search - Episode Guide - TV.com www.tv.com/shows/star-search-2003/episodes Star Search episode guides on TV.com.

IFT.org IlliGAL Blogging VHIL: Virtual Human Interaction Lab - Stanford University Push, PushGP, and Pushpop Introduction Push is a programming language designed for evolutionary computation, to be used as the programming language within which evolving programs are expressed. A concise introduction to the most recent standardized version of the language ("Push3") is contained in The Push 3.0 Programming Language Description. Versions of Push written in Common Lisp, C++, JavaScript, Java, Scheme and Clojure are available (see below). PushGP is a genetic programming system that evolves programs in the Push programming language. Multiple data types without constraints on code generation or manipulation. The 2002 article in the journal Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines provides an introduction to the general principles and philosophy of the Push project, although that article was based on Push1 and one should therefore subsequently read the GECCO-2005 paper introducing the major new features of Push3. There is a Push email list and a new Push project blog. Software and Documentation Push2:

Global Dynamics Processes: the Pattern which Connects from KaliYuga to Tao Memetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi This article is related to the study of self-replicating units of culture, not to be confused with Mimesis. Memetics is a theory of mental content based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution, originating from the popularization of Richard Dawkins' 1976 book The Selfish Gene.[1] Proponents describe memetics as an approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer. The meme, analogous to a gene, was conceived as a "unit of culture" (an idea, belief, pattern of behaviour, etc.) which is "hosted" in the minds of one or more individuals, and which can reproduce itself, thereby jumping from mind to mind. Thus what would otherwise be regarded as one individual influencing another to adopt a belief is seen as an idea-replicator reproducing itself in a new host. As with genetics, particularly under a Dawkinsian interpretation, a meme's success may be due to its contribution to the effectiveness of its host. History[edit] The modern memetics movement dates from the mid-1980s.

The Global Brain Institute The GBI uses scientific methods to better understand the global evolution towards ever-stronger connectivity between people, software and machines. By developing concrete models of this development, we can anticipate both its promises and its perils. That would help us to steer a course towards the best possible outcome for humanity. Objectives (for more details, check our strategic objectives and activities) Assumptions We see people, machines and software systems as agents that communicate via a complex network of communication links. Challenges that cannot be fully resolved by a single agent are propagated to other agents, along the links in the network. The propagation of challenges across the global network is a complex process of self-organization.

The Blind Watchmaker - Wikipedia, the free The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design is a 1986 book by Richard Dawkins in which he presents an explanation of, and argument for, the theory of evolution by means of natural selection. He also presents arguments to refute certain criticisms made on his previous book, The Selfish Gene. (Both books espouse the gene-centric view of evolution.) Overview[edit] To dispel the idea that complexity cannot arise without the intervention of a "creator", Dawkins uses the example of the eye. In developing his argument that natural selection can explain the complex adaptations of organisms, Dawkins' first concern is to illustrate the difference between the potential for the development of complexity as a result of pure randomness, as opposed to that of randomness coupled with cumulative selection. "Biomorph" that randomly evolves following changes of several numeric "genes", determining its shape. Notes[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Explain that stuff! Science and technology made simple jom-emit/overview.html Journal of Memetics -Evolutionary Models of Information Back to JoM-EMIT Home The History of the Memetic Approach At least since the early seventies several authors have tried to adopt the principle of evolution by selection to understand the continuous change in cultural behaviors (Boyd [1], Calvin [2], Campbel [6], Cloak [7]). Richard Dawkins popularized the memetic approach. He coined the term 'meme' as an analog to the biological unit of inheritance, the gene or the genetic replicator (Dawkins [11], [12]). Memetics and Related Evolutionary Approaches We see the memetic approach as an evolutionary one. Evolutionary theories are applied in a wide variety of disciplines. We feel that this plethora of approaches proves the potential of evolutionary thought in all fields of human sciences. Key References (for more see the Bibliography of Memetics) Boyd R. and Richerson PJ. 1985. Back to JoM-EMIT Home

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